There is a great need to better understand the risk factors for tobacco dependence in the United States and to focus interventions on high-risk populations with a view to treating them effectively.
Tobacco dependence causes many of the symptoms/complaints typical of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There are, however, substantial differences in the extent to which these symptoms and complaints are provoked by exposure to and dependence upon tobacco products.
The available evidence suggests that there is no curative effect of drugs that address nicotine dependence per se, although many of the drugs used to treat other smoking-related conditions have a beneficial side effect on the nicotine dependence of the participants. However, there is still some question as to whether nicotine replacement therapy is efficacious and there should be further research to understand in greater detail the pharmacological and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this drug's efficacy.
There is convincing evidence that tobacco dependence is a chronic illness, not a disorder in its own right. In addition, there is evidence that there may exist a biological cause to nicotine dependence.
In tobacco dependence, therapy with medication or counseling alone is more common than medication or counseling with behavioral treatment. Many smokers are treated for tobacco dependence by cigarette cessation (e.g. through the use of nicotine replacement therapy), though many also choose to use other methods such as nicotine patch to increase the chances of success and a longer tobacco-free period.
A person with signs of addiction of tobacco is more likely to suffer from depression, increased anxiety, and poor self-care skills as compared to a non-addicted tobacco user. However, the degree to which signs of dependence may contribute to cigarette smoking is not well documented. To find out about the clinical trial, see Clinical Trial.
Although the use of flavors in cigarettes alters nicotine delivery, it does not modulate subjective measures of nicotine taste. This suggests that flavor's modulatory effects on nicotine delivery may lie within the nicotine's effects on respiration.
[Tobacco products] are rich in flavor, but are not necessarily sweetened. Many foods produce flavor, and flavor is not the only way to explain the human desire to consume them and their addictive power. Tobacco products also produce a variety of bitter or sour tastes with a characteristic mouth odor. These flavor qualities appear to help tobacco fulfill its addiction potential.
Flavor is a widely used method for improving therapeutic food and taste. This approach can be used to improve adherence to pharmacological therapeutic diets, to aid in the evaluation of the effects of therapeutic food on patients, and to develop new flavors for children.
The common flavor side effects include headaches, drowsiness, blurred vision and other disturbances of the eyes, dizziness, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, itch, tiredness, fever, fatigue, chest discomfort, dizziness, and headache (3.2%). Side effects of flavor depend on the flavor and time of use. It has also been reported that the common flavor side effects can be prevented by reducing the use of flavors in diet, tobacco, alcohol and energy drinks.
Most patients in this retrospective investigation reported that a particular flavor, namely tobacco, was responsible for their treatment. A positive association was noted with younger age and an unknown reason for treatment; a causal relationship could not be established. For patients prescribed a particular flavor or who consumed a beverage to treat cough symptoms, additional evaluation may be needed to verify that their treatment is not explained strictly by coincidence and that the flavor is actually responsible.
Flavor was shown to be more effective than placebo for smoking cessation. The findings are particularly important for those aiming to promote cessation among smokers.