There may be different aetiologies, and it is possible that some cases of autism are due to defects in the development of the brain during the embryonic stage.\n
There is no evidence to suggest that there is a cure for autism. The only treatments which have been proven more effective in reducing symptoms of autism are early intervention, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. Evidence is limited and often conflicting. There are no medications whose effectiveness is wellestablished for autism.
In contrast to autism, a significant number of subjects in this autism population have a history of ADHD, often being on stimulant medication, and a significantly higher percentage had comorbid oppositional defiant disorder when compared to age-mates without ADHD (p < 0.001). We found no indications of a higher rate of comorbid psychiatric conditions in the autism group. These studies indicate that the treatments for ADHD in autism are not necessarily the same as, or the same as those given to persons without ADHD.
About 4% of the autistic spectrum is of mild to moderate severity. Most autistic spectrum individuals meet the criteria for ADHD, which is an overlap syndrome. Autistic spectrum individuals, particularly Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism, may also meet the criteria for obsessive compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder. We therefore propose the term 'autistic spectrum overlap' (ASO) to cover what is currently termed 'Asperger syndrome' and 'autism.
Most recently, an estimated 1 out of every 100 children at some point in time may have the autism spectrum disorder. This makes autism spectrum disorder the most common life-threatening, disabling and costly condition seen in American children. The condition accounts for approximately $1 billion in direct and indirect medical costs per year.
The primary behavioral signs of autistic disorder are a lack of social skills or interest in other people and an lack of sensory skills such as joint sensations and body movements. There are also secondary signs that depend more directly on the type and severity of the primary signs. The type of symptoms a person exhibits is not always the same across all types of autism.
If autism was considered a chronic condition with onset late in childhood or young adult years, approximately 38% of people with autism spectrum disorder would have had their onset in the third [or fourth] year of life. The [mean age of diagnosis of autism] is 7.5 years. If autism was assumed to be a chronic condition with a slowly deteriorating course, perhaps as a function of the degree of [autism expression] and age of onset, then the mean date of diagnosis would be much later, at 11 years of age. If onset of autism spectrum disorder does appear in the late teens to thirties, then the mean age of onset might be at the other end of the spectrum.
For individuals with ASD, clinical trial participation is a significant consideration. Individuals who are interested in clinical trial participation can take a holistic approach to treatment by participating in a clinical trial with a therapist and by attending a special education education class. Although clinical trials may not be the first option, it is an option.
No new discoveries for treating autism were reported. New research should explore the potential of novel treatments such as gene therapy, neuroprotective agents, and antioxidants.
Considered in the context of previous studies, this study suggests that AD is not a monogenic disorder for which familial transmission is a prerequisite; however, it is possible that one or two alleles are associated with the clinical subtype AD1.
Recent findings illustrates that ASD is more severe when compared to neurotypical individuals with more disability-inducing behavior, self-injury, and psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, autistic disorder cannot be characterized as a mild-moderate form of a disorder. ASD should ideally be regarded as a life-threatening disorder; thus, specific diagnostic criteria and guidelines to manage ASD for patients in a medical emergency setting are needed.
SI therapy can reduce avoidance of sensory input, improve sensory processing and decrease aversive/phobia-like, sensory sensations. It can help autistic patients overcome their sensory avoidance behaviors. SI therapy was useful in reducing phobias. In addition to sensory processing, SI therapy can improve communication and social interaction skills.