Diabetic neuropathy is related to many different things such as age, duration of the disease, gender, smoking, fat distribution, blood pressure, HbA1c, and other health problems. It may be more severe in women than men because they have higher levels of HbA1c, which has been shown to be correlated with peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes mellitus presents circulating factors that cause blood vessels to weaken, leading to microvascular complications. These effects are thought to result from the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on endothelial cells and pericytes, which are important for maintaining vascular integrity.
Diabetes affects many parts of our bodies including the peripheral nervous system. It is believed that there is an increase in the risk of developing neuropathy in older adults due to the fact that they are more susceptible to diabetes than younger individuals. The prevalence of neuropathy increases as one ages. However, these studies were not done specifically on diabetic neuropathy.\n
The mainstay of management of diabetic neuropathy is adequate glycemic control. In addition, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may improve symptoms of diabetic neuropathy by reducing inflammation and potentially decreasing oxidative stress. Mild pain typically responds well to analgesics (such as paracetamol, NSAIDs) alone. However, more severe pains often respond to opioid analgesics alone. Anticonvulsants may be useful in relieving chronic pain related to diabetic neuropathy.
Trauma causes mild injuries to nerves. This could lead to diabetic neuropathy. The most common form of diabetic neuropathy is Charcot joints. Nerves terminals often become swollen with deposits of glycosaminoglycans and proteins causing a loss of nerve function. Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy is relatively rare. Diabetes mellitus affects about 10% of the population in the United States. Diabetes-related neuropathies account for 60% of all cases of diabetic neuropathy. It is estimated that 1 in 20 individuals will develop diabetic neuropathy at some point during their lives. Approximately 5–10% of individuals with diabetes have diabetic neuropathy.
Approximately 1 million Americans were affected by diabetic neuropathy in 1994. Because most cases develop over an extended period, exercise and weight reduction may help prevent or slow progression of symptoms.
Most patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy would benefit from clinical trial participation. Clinical trial participation is recommended among those patients with the greatest health-related quality of life impairment and no evidence of significant depression.
The use of neuromodulatory techniques such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation are likely to be beneficial in this condition. As the first reported case report of successful use of TENS for diabetic neuropathy, we present this case to show the potential benefits of this technique in the management of diabetic neuropathy. However, much more research is needed in this area.
Although our study suggests that serum creatinine measurements are not routinely checked at the time of measurement of HbA(1c), it does not mean that they should be routinely measured. There is evidence that if one does measure them, this will result in better identification of patients at risk for developing diabetic nephropathy.
In a recent study, findings demonstrates that both DSPN and DN negatively impact QoL in T1DM patients. In a recent study, findings contribute to the growing evidence emphasizing the need for peri-diagnostic assessment of patient-reported outcomes.
We found no association between DM and peripheral neuropathy but we noted a high prevalence of PN among T2DM patients. Results from a recent clinical trial suggest the need for screening for PN in all T2DM patients.
Diabetes mellitus did not increase the risk of developing diabetic neuropathy except for the presence of hypertension in the subjects with microvascular complications. In addition, the duration of DM was significantly associated with development of diabetic neuropathy.