The severity of parkinsons disease varies from person to person; however, the main causes are age and gender. Persons who are older and female tend to have more severe forms of parkinsons disease. More than 80% of those affected die within 5 years of first symptom occurrence. Although symptoms usually begin in one area of the body, they tend to spread throughout the entire body over time.
Parkinsons disease is a neurodegenerative disease affecting multiple parts of the body and its severity differs from person to person, which results in varied symptoms within each person. The most common symptom of PD is trembling in their arms and legs but this does not mean that all people with PD will experience trembling in their arms and legs. Other symptoms may include swallowing problems, trouble speaking and swallowing food, difficulty sleeping and weight loss. However, some of the symptoms mentioned above may not be present in every patient with PD.
There is now evidence to suggest that PD can be treated through various therapeutic approaches including anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatories, antioxidants, medications to reduce oxidative stress, and antioxidants. However, there is still much work needed before any of these therapies are fully successful in treating PD. If we can’t find a cure, we should use the existing treatments to try to slow down the progression of the disease.
In terms of pharmacotherapy, many different drugs have been used clinically. These include L-DOPA (Levodopa), MAO-B inhibitors, DAT inhibitors, and dopa decarboxylase inhibitors. In addition, most patients will also receive at least one other medication including an antiemetic or anticholinergic. However, no single treatment has proven superior to others. Thus, treatment should be individualized depending on the severity of symptoms, response to previous medications, and patient preference.
Clinical trials are important for PD patients because they allow for assessing the effects of novel therapies and more data for evaluating the risks and benefits of different medicines. Trialists should evaluate the outcomes of the studies and explain their results in detail before offering treatments to patients.
There is a wide range of signs and symptoms. Many of them are subtle and vary greatly depending upon which part of the brain is affected first. The most common early sign is unsteadiness on one side of the body, especially as you get older. As time goes by your unsteadiness becomes worse and can become more noticeable. This is because your brain is becoming less able to counterbalance the effects of the disease. On the opposite side of the body your balance is also progressively affected. Some other early signs include a gradual loss of movement coordination, difficulty getting things done or remembering something, trouble making decisions, an inability to maintain motivation to do things and confusion about who you are and how you should live your life.
The biggest progress in treating PD has come through the development of drugs such as levodopa (L-DOPA) and bromocriptine (BPR). Levodopa was the first drug developed as it improves motor problems associated with PD. It improved tremors but had side effects such as nausea and vomiting. BPR, on the other hand, was developed because its side effects were less severe than that of levodopa.
Parkinsons disease is not inherited as a dominant trait. No evidence of linkage has been found to date in families with multiple cases of PD.
STN-DBS is an effective and safe treatment for PD. The need for long-term follow-up remains unclear, but our study suggests that at least 2 years' survival rate may be achievable with this approach.
The findings suggest that antipsychotics can be beneficial in PD, particularly when taken in combination with other medications. Data from a recent study could provide support for prescribing antipsychotics to PD patients who experience psychosis, but would not change the current recommendations against their use in PD patients at risk of developing psychosis.
There is no evidence that PD confers any increased risk of AD beyond age, sex and comorbid psychiatric conditions. Accordingly, the use of anti-PD therapies does not appear warranted in patients with prodromal AD.
Recent findings confirms that cognitive dysfunction occurs in PD and that it is associated with motor symptom severity. Recent findings suggest that the motor abnormalities precede cognitive deficits in PD.