Lupus can cause symptoms such as rash, discoid lupus ery thematosus, erythema nodosum, or necrolytic migratory erythema. Other symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, systemic manifestations or mucocutaneous abnormalities.
Common treatments for cutaneous lupus include antimalarial agents, photodynamic therapy, glucocorticoids, and, in severe cases, tacrolimus. Cutaneous lupus is highly predictable with respect to its treatments: the disease tends to progress rapidly when not being treated and responds slowly to treatments.\n
LCE can not cure. It cannot be cured. However, with good therapy, many patients can live a normal life with minimal symptoms. A good doctor does a good job, a good patient, and good support each year the disease can be tamed.
Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a cutaneous disease. The majority of cases (77%) occur in North Americans, and the vast majority of these are women. Rarely does a patient in the United States present at a tertiary care teaching hospital without a history of family history of LE. LE and SLE are usually idiopathic, but in rare cases, it may be a manifestation of other chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus or other connective tissue diseases. It affects all races, but in North American population, Caucasians are affected more frequently than the other races, causing an estimated 12.5/100,000 person-years.
The skin, specifically the scalp, can be affected by cutaneous SLE. It is important to recognize this feature because it can lead to differential diagnosis from discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) or erythema multiforme (EM) and can aid in the diagnosis and management of cutaneous SLE.
Approximately 6-10 million American adults with cutaneous lupus are projected to be diagnosed with the condition over the next year. This is more than half the rate of current US population incidence. However, this rate is much lower than worldwide averages, but it is much higher than in Asian nations like Japan. In these countries, it is anticipated that only 2-4 million American adults would be diagnosed with cutaneous lupus in any given year. The difference in projected rates in these countries may be because cutaneous lupus is one of the most severe forms of SLE and has been more severely surveyed in the United States than in other countries.
The vast majority of patients with skin manifestations of lupus erythematosus have primary systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as a cause. SLE is caused by an underlying autoimmune disorder that results in a constant, often uncontrolled, inflammatory response against the body's own tissues, which can range from minor skin inflammation such as that seen in a pimple to severe systemic disease such as lupus nephritis. Patients with the secondary form of lupus erthyematosus are more likely to experience skin symptoms. The exact mode of the pathogenesis of cutaneous lupus erythematosus is not clear, although several potential factors are suggested.
The incidence of remission in patients not treated with an interferon B analog was higher in the sar443122 group when compared to placebo (P <.05). There was also a significant reduction in the incidence of SELENA flare between the sar443122 group and the placebo group. A retrospective study of patients receiving sar443122 showed that overall survival after 2 to 10 years was high. However, we were unable to replicate the survival difference as this study did not contain sufficient time points to draw any conclusions about survival. These data suggest that an ongoing sar443122 multicenter randomized trial (NCT01090058) is feasible and can be a useful tool in the evaluation of sar443122 in SLE.
Side effects of sar443122 may be dose-dependent, with low-dose sar443122 tending to be more problematic than higher doses. Most commonly, side effects included fatigue, dashes, depression, headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lightheadedness, and fever. Most of these side effects were reversible within 6 months of treatment discontinuation, and no serious side effects were reported in this study. Given the relatively mild side effects, sar443122 is unlikely to be the cause, rather, other causes such as viral diseases, dehydration, environmental factors, or medications should be investigated.
Sar443122 (a novel anti-interleukin 2alpha monoclonal antibody) and standard immunosuppressive therapy appear to be similar for improving quality of life for those with CLE. Anti-interleukin 2alpha monoclonal antibodies may have advantages for CLE relative to immunosuppressive therapy.
There is evidence for Sar 443124's function as a potential inducer of the interferon-beta promoter activity. This work illustrates the need for further clarification of the molecular basis of treatment response in SLE.
The development of SAR443122 from the SAR46E family of agents has provided a potent anti-inflammatory compound that has undergone clinical phase I as an adjuvant treatment for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. A phase II human clinical study was initiated to further evaluate the efficacy of SAR443122 in conjunction with the FDA approved drug hydroxychloroquine, the FDA proposed drug candidate for SLE and RA, respectively. It remains to be defined as to whether or not SAR443122, in combination therapy with hydroxychloroquine, will provide incremental benefit.