There is no consensus for the evaluation of residual tumor following curative treatments of patients with prostate cancer. Different evaluation modes could be included into protocols.
Removing the residual tumor with the assistance of stereotactic radiosurgery appears to be associated with significantly better patient survival compared to patients who were treated with post-operative whole brain irradiation and chemotherapy; whereas patients who were treated with only post-operative whole brain irradiation and chemotherapy or with post-operative whole brain irradiation alone had no survival advantage over those not treated with a residual tumor surgery.
The signs of a residual tumor include the presence of a palpable abnormality or a mass. These signs typically involve the soft tissues and the lymph nodes surrounding the joint.
As most patients with localized recurrence do not have residual tumors, there is a high likelihood of cure in this group of patients. However, the group is a heterogeneous group--in this study, 23.5% of patients had residual tumors, and most of them could not be cured from these residual tumors.
A very small number of patients who have complete surgical excision of the tumor have persistent tumor. In the United States, an estimated 40,000 patients develop tumor out of their entire resection specimen.
Patients' age and the type of tumor resection may be prognostic factors for the residual tumor. The most effective treatment strategy in patients with residual tumors may be determined by the type of tumor reseced during surgery.
Residual tumor mass is a critical factor in determining the chance of long-term remission, and is the first predictive factor for relapse-free survival, although most patients experience a significant decline in their cancer-related quality of life.
fludarabine is an effective chemotherapy to reduce the residual tumor burden in patients with high-risk hairy cell leukemia. The most frequent adverse effects, such as vomiting, neutropenia, and anemia, were dose-related phenomena associated with the administration of fludarabine. The authors also discuss the potential for improving the pharmacokinetics of fludarabine.
There are four potential factors that can affect long-term survival rates of patients with residual tumor; the extent to which residual tumor affects patients' lifestyle, the surgical completeness, the pre-operative tumor volume, and the post-operative therapy. The extent to which residual tumor affects patients' lifestyle and the surgical completeness have an independent effect on survival outcomes. When patients present to the clinic with residual tumor, the survival rate should be carefully considered and a thorough assessment should be done to the best treatment plan for residual tumor.
Patients undergoing CHOP or other HDAC inhibitor therapy may experience hypersensitivity reactions, skin reactions, nausea, vomiting, or anemia. The timing and frequency of side effects appear to be more important variables than the dosage used.
In a recent study, findings of this study have identified a time course of development of residual tumor as soon as 24 h after irradiation. To assess whether residual tumor cells are still present, or whether further treatment is warranted, biopsies are needed at specific time intervals.
Residual tumor was common among patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. The percentage of residual tumors did not correlate with the type of chemotherapy, the grade of tumors or the number of chemotherapies. Patients with residual tumor may benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy, which may be a crucial method to improvement survival for advanced-stage ovarian cancer.