The signs and symptoms of cancer of rectum are not clearly defined, and are sometimes hard to identify in adults. A thorough history is recommended in order to formulate a differential diagnosis. Screening is only recommended in those with chronic constipation, blood in stool or haemorrhoids. A positive fecal occult blood test is a reliable sign for colorectal carcinoma. The stage of the tumour is crucial in determining the type of surgery, and staging should be done in patients with constipation and faecal occult blood. In those with signs but no symptoms of cancer of rectum, endovaginal ultrasound scanning can be performed.
In the most extreme cases, surgery or radiation have been the treatments of choice. There are also several alternative and complementary treatments, such as herbal and palliative medicines, acupuncture, cryotherapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and meditation.
Colorectal cancer is caused by a variety of factors. Tobacco smoking, a diet high in fat and animal protein, and aflatoxin exposure appear to be linked to a small proportion of cases. Inadequate and chronic bleeding after bowel inspection may be more important. No single factor appears solely to cause most cases.
Around 20,600 people are diagnosed with CRM in the United States in 2006. The proportion of CRM diagnosed among patients in the United States is higher in men than in women. Median mortality from CRM is 3 months, irrespective of the stage or the tumor site of origin.
Cancer of rectum (as well as [colon cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/colon-cancer)) is not cured by surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy - or even cure. It is imperative that patients are informed and understand the fact that, as the only cure for [colorectal cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/colorectal-cancer) is a complete resection, there is no cure for rectal cancer. Treatments used or in development for rectal cancer currently focus on relieving life-threatening symptoms rather than a cure by itself. Clinically advanced rectal cancer typically progresses to liver metastases or distant spread to the lungs and/or brain within 2 years without any treatments. Follow-up care will be essential for these patients, and should be coordinated into their treatment plans to help manage and minimize complications.
While a small proportion of cases are diagnosed with malignant lesions within rectal wall, most of these are in fact either squamous cell carcinoma of the colon or adenocarcinoma of the rectum. In contrast to [colon cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/colon-cancer), rectal cancer tends to present with occult cancer cell spread, as compared to colon cancer, where cancer cells are detectable on cytology. The development of MRI and MR colonographic has enabled the detection of occult cancers cells of rectal wall and the detection and staging of rectal cancers. The outcome of locally advanced rectal cancers is not different from colon cancers. Local surgical resection with low anterior resection is effective treatment in some patients. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is also an option.
cvid has an insignificant therapeutic effect for advanced rectal cancer as measured by TRS. The superiority of cvid is not supported by a clinically significant difference in primary outcome measures, and TRS has a good positive and negative predictive value, which limits the application of personalized treatments at this stage.
Results from the present study do not support the concept that there are familial predispositions to [colorectal cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/colorectal-cancer), including cancer as rectum, in the Croatian population.
Clinical trials of rectal cancer are very scarce and many patients do not know about them. Although they are being designed for certain patient populations, there are other characteristics that make them interesting for all rectal cancer patients. To address this, physicians or nurse specialists should be vigilant to the trial's goals to make them aware of clinical trials, and then give them the opportunity to receive appropriate information.
For the most part, cvid was a well tolerated treatment for the management of symptomatic metastatic rectal cancer. The use of cvid in combination with other treatments was limited by the lack of available randomized clinical trials. There is a need for more prospective trials including standard treatment schedules in order to more fully address the role of cvid in the management of rectal cancer.
Based on our preliminary study, we feel that the rectal wall has a limited role in the spread of advanced rectal cancers and may serve as a local site for anastomotic recurrence.
There have been many studies investigating different methods for curative treatment of rectovaginal cancer. However, there is limited data regarding adjuvant (or conservative) treatment of this sub type of cancer (Rectal wall and infiltration). Therefore, the present article shows possible treatment pathways based on the results of recent studies.