This case highlights the need for a full, detailed history and thorough physical work-up to rule out other causes of nephropathy. The lack of association between eGFR and urinary albumin excretion suggests that nephropathy is likely to occur without a significant fall in renal function.
The majority of patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy underwent renal replacement therapy and/or intervention. Statins were the most common therapy. These data add valuable insight to treatment of type 2 diabetes in the CKD population.
The disease evolves over time through various steps (albuminuria, microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, and CKD stage 3 and 4) which lead to the need for dialysis and its complications.
Because these data do not differ substantially from national data from the previous year, and no significant trends appear to be apparent for either prevalence or incidence over the last decade, national estimates of the prevalence of type 2 diabetic nephropathy in adults are likely to be valid.
It is difficult to identify signs of kidney damage until proteinuria or microalbuminuria become apparent. Most people with diabetes who develop significant proteinuria do not have a history of kidney disease. The use of eGFR in the surveillance of proteinuria is warranted.
The type 2 diabetic patient's proteinuria can be controlled in about half of patients, even with intensive conventional therapy with drugs like ACE inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor antagonist.
The discovery to date has included only one drug, which has been approved from the European Union. More effective drugs are necessary for treatment of diabetic kidney disease.
Based on data from 8 large type 2 diabetic populations and adjusting for gender, race, and age, the most recently reported average age of diabetic nephropathy onset at diagnosis was 61.3 years, with black individuals diagnosed earlier than other ethnic or racial groups. We propose that further validation be done around this current cutoff, as earlier diagnoses could have a major impact on healthcare utilization for persons with type 2 diabetes and diabetic-end-stage kidney disease.
Data from a recent study indicates that while RAS bers may be used alone in most cases and may be effective in controlling the course of CKD, its effectiveness is significantly higher when combined with other treatments.
There was no apparent difference in the rate of side effects between the RASBs or placebo; however, side effects were significantly more common in men. The most common side effect in patients receiving ACE inhibitor monotherapy, as compared to patients who received only ARB, was dizziness.
The prevalence of [type 2 diabetes](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/type-2-diabetes) mellitus was 4.4 times higher among diabetic patients than in the general Norwegian population. The mean age of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was 59.9 (19.8) years, which is considerably higher than the mean age of diagnosis of diabetes (23.6 (8.4)) in the general Norwegian population. A major (p=0.027) difference in the prevalence of the HbA(1c) values was found between the group who has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and the control group; the mean of HbA(1c) was 7.0% (1.2%) in the group with type 2 diabetes as compared with 5.9% (1.
The combination of ACE inhibitor and ARB may yield more effective antiproteinuria and less deterioration of renal function than treatment with either ACE inhibitors or ARBs alone.