Lassa fever is caused by a single viral species of the genus Arenavirus. The two human viruses are Lassa fever virus (LFV) and Junín virus (JUNV); Junín virus was first isolated in Argentina in 1969, and LFV was first isolated in 1976, although the virus was not identified as such until 1977. Humans and other primates were the original reservoir for LFV and JUNV. The Junín virus was isolated in 1969 in a young man with acute hemorrhagic fever in El Salvador.
Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic viral disease that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Both supportive care and antibiotics are used to reduce illness duration and mortality. Antivirals (such as ruminovir, ribavirin etc.) have been used in this setting as there is no specific treatment, but this use is not widely accepted by the professional community. Although the mechanism of action of these agents is not well understood, these findings offer the potential to develop novel antiviral therapies in this setting.
The most common first symptom is a high fever (38%) which is followed by sudden collapse, severe headache, vomiting, confusion, diarrhea, and confusion/motor weakness. The average time to death is about 12 days. Lassa fever is now more widespread in West Africa than ever. In 2012, it broke the World Health Organisation (WHO) case fatality ratio records, becoming the first human virus that causes more than 10,000 deaths in a single year. It remains a deadly disease and no specific vaccine has been produced. However the best treatment for lassa is supportive care. Clinical presentations and prognoses of the disease vary widely.
Fever with a rash of more than 5 cm or with the combination of headache, facial flushing, and muscle ache occurs at a rate in the United States that is similar to that in Africa or the Caribbean. Because fever with these features is common and is often serious, it might be prudent to have a policy on the dissemination of information about the disease and its means of transmission during an Lassa fever outbreak.
Lassa fever is a neglected disease that is prevalent in West Africa. Data from a recent study, no fatalities were observed. However, the high infection rate and a substantial number of complications need more definitive work. The first step to cure the disease is to control the environment, which makes the treatment and control of the reservoir of Lassa viral infection extremely important.
Lassa fever and the Lassa virus appear to be caused by a mouse-borne pathogen, possibly a member of the family Arenaviridae, or by some other species of a related virus, which has been isolated from the area. These viruses are known only from the Ntaya Plateau, near Lagos, Nigeria, but the source of the pathogen and the virus are unlikely to be found in wild mice, nor the Ntaya Plateau itself. Furthermore, the viruses do not appear to be related to lassa fever, a disease previously found in Nigeria. Thus, they appear to share an intermediate host.
The current trial did not meet the inclusion criteria. However, there is a strong rationale for conducting a rvsv∆g-lasv-gpc clinical study (and there is currently no other similar clinical trials to study).
The expression of recombination and splicing of gpc and other antigens is induced by a single DNA motif that is present throughout the Listeria genome.
The current generation of recombinant VRE's are highly effective and safe for clinical use. The use of an engineered vaccine and adjuvants may help to further improve treatment effects with higher immunogenicity, safer persistence and wider spectrum.
From these data, it is clear that the potential range of lethality is much greater than the current reported rate of mortality; in our experience, the lethal rate in our study population is around 21%. These data may provide a target for clinical trials of adjunctive therapy in West Africa.
It can be inferred that the average age of diagnosis will be lowered and earlier treatment will be provided when more effective methods of prevention are researched and implemented.
Most patients with rvsv∆g-lasv-gpc suffer from flu-like symptoms (fever, sweating and generalized discomfort), nausea/vomiting/loss of appetite, and headache. Rarely can we observe also a sore throat and/or diarrhea or constipation. The most frequent side effects in pediatric patients are headache, nausea/vomiting/loss of appetite and lethargy. The symptoms usually disappear after the intravenous infusion of rvsv∆g-lasv-gpc. The side effects are usually well tolerated by the patients.