Although the proportion of patients with advanced OSCC is diminishing, OSCC does present a very serious problem in terms of its recurrence and mortality. The use of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is an alternative treatment approach that can improve survival and quality of life in OSCC patients.
The American Cancer Society estimates there will be 10,100 new diagnoses of oral squamous cell carcinoma in 2017. The oral cancer population has been increasing steadily since 1940. The 5-year relative survival rate from 1971 through 1990 was 35%. By comparison, the 5-year relative overall survival rate from 1975 through 1990 was 41%. Oropharyngeal cancer had the strongest association with smoking and drinking behavior at all time periods. At each 5-year period from 1970 through 2010, an increasing number of people had a curative treatment at time of diagnosis; moreover, the percentage of individuals with curative treatment increased steadily. These trends are most evident for pharyngeal cancers.
A thorough knowledge about the treatment of OSCC is essential for patient's care and cancer survival. The best outcome of treatment depends on the stage, the extent of pathology, and the patients' medical and socioeconomic status. The patient may become compromised by the treatment; therefore, appropriate communication and emotional consultation are especially important.
Oral SCC is caused primarily by smoking and other factors that increase the likelihood of smoking. Most of the other factors increase the chance of developing OSCC, but not necessarily cancer. However, a small number of risk factors clearly do elevate the chances of cancer and can be targeted to prevent the tumors. One of the risk factors clearly alters the probability of cancer developing in the mouth and can be targeted as well.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma develops in the oral cavity, usually in and around the mouth. Oral carcinoma also develops gradually over many years. The cancer may grow and spread at any time to other parts of the body. Usually the first clinical detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma is by observing a lump on the surface of the oral cavity or gums. The disease can often be diagnosed quite early by the appearance of an ulcer. Later a lump which has grown at a suspicious spot may be noted. The occurrence of signs of oral cancer in an adult is rare. In some individuals, an individual inherits a high chance of getting oral cancer due to a genetic predisposition for the disease.
Oral cancer is a significant disease entity with significant disability, economic burden, and death. A multidisciplinary approach, early diagnosis, and prevention are important in halting future disease progression.
The average age when people development oral squamous cell carcinoma is 65.2 years old. The average time of survivals is 5.2 years after the time of diagnosis by oral physician. The ratio of males to females is 1.7 to 1.
Based on this observational study, there was no clear association between oral cancer and relatives with the same cancer type. However, when adjusted for family history, paternal relationship and smoking history, there was a weak positive association of paternal oral cancer with OSCC in offspring, although not statistically significant (p = 0.23).
The strongest factors that determined risk of OSCC in this investigation were cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. In addition, the presence of one or more oral lichen planus lesions, a history of radiation therapy to the head and neck region, and a family history of oral cancer were also found to be risk factors for development of oral cancers.
There is a trend in survival for the different types of squamous cell carcinomas. Data from a recent study the relative survival for oral squamous cell carcinoma was better. The cause of this improvement is unclear, although it is most likely to be due to the better quality of the treatment and a better detection and treatment of the disease in this group of patients who do not fit neatly into the previously described histopathology classes.
Clinically eligible patients with surgically resectable OSCC have high likelihoods of benefit with different protocols. This indicates the need for well-designed trials to more accurately determine the efficacy of these protocols in treating both locally advanced and primary stage OSCC patients. Clin J Surg Oncol. 2016;24:837-850.
As our data show, the spectral photoacoustic (PA) signal amplitude is linearly related to the optical intensity of the imaging illumination. The signal amplitude is also linearly dependent on the irradiance. Photodynamic therapy with an iodide-based photosensitizer should therefore suffice to induce PA signal enhancement in an appropriate optical-density range. Given the close proximity to the light source, the photothermal signal is also linearly related to the optical intensity. Therefore, PA signal enhancement might not be restricted to the optical dose range determined for light-induced photodynamic therapy with an iodide-based photosensitizer.