Cognitive impairments include decreased alertness, lethargy, slowed responses, reduced speech rate and difficulty with attention. It can manifest in many ways and may cause significant difficulty with day-to-day functions. These deficits are often experienced as'slow' or'sluggish'.
As a whole, the age-specific incidence of cognitive decline appears relatively low in the U.S. population. However, there is a substantial proportion of people who may experience significant cognitive decline each year. The incidence of cognitive decline and the magnitude of cognitive decline appear to vary with age and race, but not with sex.
There is the current research to support the use of cognitive rehabilitation therapy in the elderly population. However, no randomized controlled trials have been published that support its superiority over the regular care.
Results from a recent clinical trial did not find one set of common factors that could explain why older adults experience cognitive impairment and the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. The only factor that had associations with both was self-reported sleep deficit, which does not tell us what exactly is responsible for this phenomenon. Future work looks to identify those risk factors that explain why one person develops Alzheimer's, and that help us discover ways in which risk can be reduced.
Cognitive decline has become a widely occurring phenomenon among older adults in many parts of the world. The study of the complex biobehavioral processes involved in cognitive decline may lead to a greater understanding of what constitutes appropriate intervention strategies and to novel therapies which may provide protection against aging-related dysfunction of cognitive ability.
Cognitive decline is a common phenomenon, and most people do not exhibit any deficits in IQ, at least up to age 76 and maybe even the 80s. However, cognitive decline can be slowed and reduced and its symptoms can be alleviated over the course of a few weeks, with more extensive and longer-term treatment.
The present study demonstrates that neuroplasticity-based cognitive remediation can reduce some executive functions in healthy adults. Recent findings support the hypothesis that neuroplasticity-based computerized cognitive remediation can decrease some executive functions in older adults.
Clinical trials have been performed to identify drugs or supplements that may slow the rate of cognitive decline for patients with mild cognitive impairment and may prevent the development of dementia. A number of promising candidates for treating or preventing cognitive decline include [Cilazapril, Memantine, and Prazosin]. A review of the evidence of medicines and supplements is in progress to provide the community and healthcare providers with the most evidence-based information for treating cognitive decline.
Results from a recent clinical trial of this study support the possibility that neuroplasticity-based computerized cognitive remediation may offer a promising and inexpensive intervention to promote functional recovery in patients at risk of developing cognitive decline.
[A recent meta-analysis of six separate studies on cognitive decline in adults aged 40-80 years from 1998 to 2009 confirms that cognition in later life, as measured via neuropsychological testing, is associated with most causes of mortality, including cardiovascular disease and death from non-cancer diseases (P=0.02-0.03]. Further research is needed to examine the role of early life health and lifestyles (physical activity, obesity, etc.
Despite the lack of evidence-based studies, computerized CR-based interventions may be a promising part of an integrated treatment for cognitive impairment in people with IHD. Further studies are needed to determine the most appropriate frequency, dosing and rehabilitation strategy for people with IHD.
The use of computer-based cognitive remediation programs showed promise as a treatment option for improving performance on the neuropsychological tests analyzed herein. Recent findings of this preliminary study suggest that further study to clarify the clinical usefulness of such computer-based brain training protocols is warranted.