This trial is evaluating whether IS (MMF or MPA) will improve 2 primary outcomes and 40 secondary outcomes in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Measurement will happen over the course of Through Day 7 post study vaccination.
This trial requires 2340 total participants across 24 different treatment groups
This trial involves 24 different treatments. IS (MMF Or MPA) is the primary treatment being studied. Participants will be divided into 24 treatment groups. There is no placebo group. The treatments being tested are in Phase 2 and have already been tested with other people.
"The exact cause of pemphigus is unknown. However, many theories of the disease exist. The most favored is a reaction in the skin caused when the body responds to trauma (e.g. infection or autoantibody), possibly through an immunological mechanism. The symptoms of blistering have been observed in some of the diseased patients even when the direct stimuli are absent (e.g. in the case of paraneoplastic pemphigus). A direct antigenic stimulation or indirect mechanism (e.g. by a hypersensitization reaction of the skin to other proteins of the body) might, in some cases, be responsible for the disease." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Antibiotic medications are rarely used to prevent infection in patients with pemphigus vulgaris. In pemphigus foliaceus, anti-IL-12 therapy is a mainstay of treatment, because of its effectiveness in preventing blistering lesions recurrence due to IL-12 overproduction by macrophages." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Skin lesions can be maintained on prednisone and doxycycline. However, in refractory cases, alternatives need to be explored and more research and clinical findings should follow." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"The signs of pemphigus are a main clinical guide in the differential diagnosis. One should be vigilant to recognize subtle clues, particularly the presence of epidermal lesions that may be seen by dermatologists, but also consider whether the patient has blistering of the mouth and or genital area or if itching occurs, which is more often associated with pemphigus foliaceus than with bullous pemphigoid. The symptoms are summarized in Table 2." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"The incidence of pemphigus has increased in the past 10 years according to these data. However, the increase has leveled off from an average annual increase of 17.5%. The reason for this stabilization of incidence is still unknown but the increase in average annual pemphigus incidence was probably caused by increasing use of immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune diseases. The clinical manifestations of pemphigus, especially after adjusting for the use of immunosuppressive therapy, have not changed in this time." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Pemphigus is a blistering autoimmune diseases characterized by immunoglobulin autoantibodies against desmogleins that cause intraepidermal autoantibodies and intraepidermal IgG4 deposits. Clinically, the disease is characterized by blistering of the skin, mucous membranes, and mucosal structures in those areas of the body that are exposed to the environment. Pemphigus disease is not curable, and treatment consists of long-term follow up and medications to control symptoms. Pemphigus is rare. More than 100 million people currently suffer from one of at least seven different types of this rare disease. It is most common and serious in people of middle age." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"The study of pemphigus aims to analyze how it evolves (its clinical, immunopathological, and epidemiological profile, and its susceptibility) and to identify the environmental factors that could influence this kind of skin disease. In addition, studies on a genetic basis and of autoimmune and hypersensitivity mechanisms are being pursued in order to better understand the physiopathology of the disease and to give support to the management." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"A common misconception about the value of the MpA is that 1 mA is used to treat very small pustules on the skin that heal quickly and do not form scars. In reality, most of the people who would use a 1.5 mmb (1 mA) device would be patients with the skin disease pemphigus. The 1.5 mmb device would provide one tenth of the healing power of a 1.0 mmb electrode. In patients with pemphigus, a doctor or a nurse at first-time application of a 1.0 mmb electrodes helps to stabilize the treatment and to choose the right medication regimen, [Powerpoint lecture]." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Although the inheritance pattern of familial pemphigus is not yet fully understood, it is suggested that this genetic phenomenon should be taken into account in future studies." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Is is used in small doses (mean 0.005% of body weight) in cosmetics for the treatment of acne, psoriasis, seborrhea, and hirsutism. Is is also used for the treatment of certain autoimmune skin conditions and oral lichen planus. However, side effects from higher doses or repeated use may occur. People who are taking immunosuppressants, especially ciclosporin (Neoral) and tacrolimus (Prograf), or people with a history of autoimmune disease should not use is. Is is not indicated for use on the skin." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"All people experiencing one of the main types of pemphigus are at risk of developing skin cancer. While the exact cause of pemphigus remains unknown, a number of potential risk factors have been identified, including: tobacco, alcohol, family history of skin cancer, exposure to sunlight, and previous skin injury. Doctors also recommend a complete skin examination of people with pemphigus, including a skin biopsy when this is necessary, to look for indicators of skin cancer, which might include squamous cell, cutaneous basal-cell or melanoma, as well as a thorough history of any other skin cancers detected during the exam." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"The most recent literature in the field has been published within the last 3 years. The use of intralesional and intravenous immunoglobulin, and other plasma products, should be evaluated for the treatment of all clinical forms of pemphigus. Additionally, prospective long-term randomized studies are needed to determine whether the newer preparations confer a definite long-term advantage over the existing therapies." - Anonymous Online Contributor