Ocular signs of presbyopia include a change in the refractive power of the eye and/or a change in the shape and/or motility of the eye. Optometric examination for presbyopia is required.
Findings from a recent study showed a high prevalence of presbyopia in the Saudi population, which suggested that ocular examinations are needed in the early stages of presbyopia and in those over 70 years of age.
About 1,500 people in the United States develop presbyopia in a lifetime. The risk, however, of developing presbyopia within the next five years is estimated at nearly 15%.
Presbyopia cannot and should not be cured. To restore presbyopic vision adequately, patients must be able to wear the lenses all of the time. To accomplish this goal, new materials requiring minimal handling and use of artificial lighting are needed; lenses used with rigid, rigid-rigid lenses can be used effectively. Patients must be taught how to use contact lenses.
Many patients are currently treated for myopia when they in fact possess a presbyopic refractive state. This issue can adversely affect eye care providers, who usually provide patient education with refractive error information before initiating treatment. Most patients who do not undergo such treatment have an incorrect prescription.
In the USA, presbyopia is one of the most common causes of vision loss in older adults, affecting about 20% of those 65 years and older.
Ocufolin has not been conclusively identified as safe for use. The risk/benefit profile and the potential for harm may differ from one person to another. To ensure a low cumulative treatment dose and a safe course of treatment, it is important to consider the potential of ocufolin when designing studies for people with retinal disorders.
Recent findings has shown a statistically significant improvement in quality of life for ocufolin-treated people with presbyopia. The improvement appears to start about 5 days before the commencement of the ocufolin treatment and is maintained until 7 days after the commencement of ocufolin treatment. Recent findings of this study have shown the significance of taking a systematic, full-scale and comprehensive approach to assess the effect of ocufolin on the quality of life of people with presbyopia. Our observations suggest that ocufolin may be clinically worthwhile.
In general, there are not many clinical developments that have had a great deal of success. Recently, the FDA has approved the use of prism (a lens that allows sharper vision) as a cosmetic treatment for moderate to severe myopia. Clinical trials regarding its long-term safety and effectiveness remain to be completed. The eye care team is also trying to find a method to improve vision correction in people with presbyopia and treat it for this reason. It is also important that the prescribing general practitioner is aware of the risks and potential side effects associated with these developments and is careful to follow up.
The common treatment-related side effects were: dizziness, headache, vomiting, rash, and cough. In conclusion, caution is needed when administering ocufolin. In particular, patients with a history or at heightened risk for dehydration or hypotension must be informed of the potential side effects.
Ocufolin usually treats presbyopia. Ocufolin, by itself, is a drug of limited value and as a monotherapy for presbyopia is not efficacious. Patients receiving ocufolin with LASIK should be followed carefully as the risk of retinal detachment may occur. The combination of LASIK and ocufolin may worsen ocular motility disorders, leading to a postoperative diplopia or myopic shift (in the direction towards the treated eye). Further investigations into the pharmacokinetics of ocufolin in eyes after LASIK are warranted.
There have been no new clinical trials of ocufolin, a synthetic derivative of vitamin A used as a mydriatic and anti-glare. However, ocufolin has been researched extensively with regard to its effects on eye color, but the results, therefore, are contradictory. In studies involving [retina pigment epithelium (RPE)] cells, ocufolin does increase cell production of retinol, but no effects on the expression of genes related to retinal pigment epithelium cell or function. Therefore, caution must be used to determine in studies that use ocufolin to the effects on gene expression of RPE cells.