The signs of lipidemia are easy to detect. Among people with abnormal cholesterol levels, there is an association between abnormal blood triglyceride levels and LDL cholesterol.
Lipidemia treatment could have a positive impact on metabolic disorders like obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome. But the results of our meta-analysis indicated that the lipid lowering effect on total or cardiovascular events could have no significant influence.
Recent findings show the relationship between lipoprotein subclasses and coronary heart disease risk. High levels of low density lipoproteins or low density lipoprotein-cholesterol are also correlated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, suggesting that hypercholesterolemia in a general population is a significant risk factor for heart disease.
About 8% of American adults have high blood cholesterol. However, only about 0.3% of US adults have elevated blood cholesterol. The actual number of those affected by elevated blood cholesterol cannot be estimated accurately based on those who have cholesterol testing and are known to receive care or on those who test negative for high cholesterol. As with most diseases, the number of people with hypercholesterolemia who are unaffected is much higher. It is also important to note that the overwhelming majority of those with elevated cholesterol do not suffer any detectable heart disease.
It was hard to identify common treatments for lipidemia because they are rare in clinical practice. The main treatment prescribed for lipidemia is HMGCoA-reducing drugs. Treatment of hypertriglyceridemias is not so common, however, often due to the high cost. It was concluded that patients should be targeted for more frequent follow-up since the main objectives of treatment are to make sure the cholesterol level is kept normal and to manage the comorbidities.
[The major cause of familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia, and familial homozygous hypercholesterolemia are LDL (R1447Q in LDLR gene)(R1447H in PCSK9 gene) mutations. A significant part of familial hypercholesterolemia and familial combined hyperlipidemia are due to heterozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in LDLR gene (R1447Q in LDLR gene) and PCSK9 gene(R1447H in PCSK9 gene, respectively). The most common cause of familial combined hyperlipidemia is R1447Q mutation in LDLR gene.
Although the components of a multi-model intervention have been studied, the effectiveness and cost of such interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in low-income families with Type 2 diabetes are not well understood. A randomized controlled trial is justified for determining the effectiveness of such multi-component interventions for this population, as well as for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.
Based on results from this study, familial influences appear to be considerable for the risk of lipid disturbances. A more precise definition of familial influences may be necessary in determining the role if any of the risk factors is of genetic origin.
Hyperlipidemia, particularly raised TG, may be an important risk factor for CVD. High levels of total cholesterol in combination with increasing levels of LDL and lowering levels of HDL cholesterol can increase the risk of atherosclerosis, suggesting that these lipid levels may be independent risk factors for developing CVD. In addition to blood tests, researchers believe that a comprehensive evaluation of lipid levels might be important to prevent and manage these disorders.
There were some differences in the use of multi-component interventions; the use of a combination was not uncommon in combination therapy. Additional trials are needed to establish the effectiveness of multi-component treatments versus single-component treatments in CHD prevention and primary/secondary prevention of CHD events and CHD complications with particular reference to secondary prevention of non-fatal stroke or myocardial infarction.
A comprehensive approach combining lifestyle and drug intervention significantly reduced hsCRP levels, and this effect was more pronounced among patients with high baseline CRP levels. These data suggest that an integrated medical and psychological intervention targeting atherogenic risk factors may result in considerable beneficial effects.