Signs and symptoms of influenza may vary depending on the age and underlying disease of the person. Therefore, it's important to pay attention as the disease progresses. The most common signs in adults are fever, muscular pains, difficulty swallowing, and sore throat. In children it's usually cough, weakness, and breathing problems. Symptoms in the elderly may include weakness, shortness of breath, and difficulty walking. In adults, influenza is most common during the late winter and early spring, and in children it's most common between September and November. It's also most common in the young and the very young. A [CDC influenza] (https://www.cdc.gov/influenza/virus/virus.
Each year influenza, human causes about 185,000 hospitalizations and about 2750 deaths in the United States. Most Americans have had influenza epidemics during their lifetime.
For many individuals with the flu, it is common to take acetaminophen, Tylenol, or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain relief. This finding supports the need for a bigger study of the relationship between acetaminophen, NSAIDs, and flu, especially in view of the widespread use of NSAIDs.
Influenza A/09/H1N1 is transmitted from person to person, and may have a zoonotic source. Human influenza viruses generally circulate worldwide and are an important cause of influenza epidemics and interpandemic pandemics. Most human cases of the 2009/09 epidemic were caused by viruses of the influenza A subtype H1N1. Influenza B is uncommonly isolated from humans. Influenza does not cause human disease. Influenza is transmitted primarily by airborne droplets or secretions from infected individuals, direct contact, contaminated surfaces, and close droplet-to-droplet contact such as sharing pillows, kissing, or sharing a common handkerchief.
The influenza viruses are a group of small, enveloped, viruses that infect humans and other vertebrates. In humans, it causes an illness with variable clinical manifestations that may result in either mild or severe infection. Infections with influenza viruses may be seasonal or may be acquired periodically without a prior infection. Influenza is an acute febrile respiratory tract disease characterized by the presence of a runny nose, cough, sore throat, and muscle pains. Influenza may also spread to other people without symptoms in the absence of an infected individual. Influenza A and B are the only viruses that are typically responsible for causing illness in humans and may be spread through airborne or direct contact.
For patients with mild-to-moderate [influenza](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/influenza)-like symptoms, most guideline-based antivirals are as effective as a placebo. The recommendation for antiviral therapy for patients with serious complications from influenza should be reevaluated. Until the risk-benefit ratio of antivirals is clearly established, clinicians should monitor patients carefully with influenza, not take a recommendation to treat for flu as an indication to treat with antivirals, and consider alternative treatments, including lifestyle, for their flu-like symptoms.
The overall QOL of people with influenza is comparable to that for people in the general population. The treatment of influenza for a moderate disease course has little effects on QOL as measured by the AQWB and the QOL domains (pain, fatigue, appetite, cognitive functions, respiratory and itching symptoms). However, the improvement of mood, the recovery rate after treatment and the improvement of cough duration are related to the improvement of the overall AQWB score.
Our understanding of the pathogenesis of viral respiratory infections is improving. The current literature should help identify the optimum approach to treating patients with viral infections.
There is evidence that treatment for [influenza](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/influenza) affects health in children as it does in adults. We will need to see how treatment for the winter flu interacts with treatment for disease flare-ups.
This is the first comprehensive article about the most recent vaccine updates. Current research on flu and human is limited but growing in scope. Further knowledge might prove useful in preventing complications or mitigating their consequences.
Influenza and human coronavirus infections pose a challenge to public health in Singapore and elsewhere. The current clinical management may be insufficient to control these infections. A vaccine for influenza was developed and approved by regulatory authorities in 2013. The vaccine coverage was found to be very low amongst seasonal flu patients when compared to the population-wide coverage in Singapore in winter months. Therefore, mass vaccination against influenza is crucial in Singapore, as it will likely benefit the Singaporean health care services and save the healthcare expenses.