The genetic profile of a child or adolescent with a first psychotic episode is not necessarily reflective of their risk of psychosis in adulthood. Understanding this genetic basis can facilitate the development of the most effective and cost-effective early intervention programs for schizophrenia.
The presentation of psychotic disorders is varied; consequently, there are many diagnostic classifications. The simplest and most widely applied class descriptors are psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, and substance-induced psychotic symptoms. Although the psychotic spectrum is an excellent classification of psychotic disorders, there are many different classifications. Thus, it is of interest to summarize the most common and appropriate class descriptions used in medical literature, and their diagnostic capabilities and specific treatment options.
In an unselected sample from the general population, signs of psychosis include confusion, an irregular, inappropriate mood, and hallucinations and delusions. All of these signs are more common in psychotic disorders and most of them are relatively easily detected by the general public (e.g., delusions).
The treatment of psychotic disorders is often long and difficult and many people with psychotic diseases either never receive treatment or are treated with many different medications which do not help. The majority of people with psychotic disorders have been on the same first line medication for long periods, a factor which may be associated with lack of treatment adherence to the medication. People with psychotic disorders frequently see many different psychiatrists, and if the prescribing is poor then this can have a negative effect on people with psychotic disorders who need prompt and correct treatment for the psychotic disorder.
A total of about 1.1 million people would be diagnosed with psychotic disorders at some point in their life. As psychosis is a chronic, relapsing and often underdiagnosed disease there is significant scope for further research into its prevalence in this population in order to improve prognosis and treatment outcomes.
While individuals with psychotic disorders may not be able to be completely cured with psychotic disorder, some recovery does take place. The possibility of complete remission cannot be discounted.
There has been little evidence from clinical trials to show that apps can reduce risk factors for psychosis. However, given the strong potential of mobile phone based interventions for mental health research, the ongoing development and testing of personalized motivational enhancement apps may offer an exciting and innovative means of assessing the effect of personalised interventions. Clinical trials registration number: H_290729.
A personalized RE-MME app has the potential to improve treatment adherence to medication adherence, reduce symptoms, and consequently, improve outcomes of those with schizophrenia and chronic psychosis. A large RCT is warranted (N = 1400 participants). www.clinicaltrials.gov"
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Results from a recent clinical trial demonstrated the value of self-administrated clinical data in the provision of personalized tailored advice to patients to help them manage their medication. The combination of the drug monitoring and the information provided to each patient allowed the clinicians to personalise their treatment and thereby optimise results. The patients were more satisfied with the support from the clinicians through the use of a realtime app.
In a recent study, findings of this study show that people have an interest in the Prime application not only to optimize their physical and moods, but also their cognitive functions and motivation in everyday life, which can be used as a tool to provide more personalized support. The Prime app, as a potentially applicable and safe clinical tool, may motivate individuals with psychotic disorders to improve certain aspects of their lives that may not adequately be pursued otherwise, such as social competence.
Patients treated with the Prime app reported improved medication adherence and self-efficacy, with no significant change in depressive symptoms. Moreover, patients using the Prime app reported better functioning and quality of life and had higher overall treatment satisfaction.
Given that the Internet has become an invaluable resource for many people affected by psychotic disorders, this study demonstrates the potential of an Internet-based treatment program to be valuable in a clinical setting to patients who are not able to tolerate being seen on an in-person therapy program.