The risk of developing AD rises with age. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive condition that can lead to severe disability or death. The first signs of AD may not be detectable until years after the onset of symptoms. This article and the Alzheimer's Society Website provide useful information about risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of AD, and relevant news and support groups.
Many signs and symptoms precede the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Early signs include aphasia, visual complaints, sleep problems, forgetfulness, irritability and hallucinations (a symptom of the disease). Symptoms may be vague, particularly if the disease is more advanced. For example, early symptoms such as forgetting people and things and not knowing where one is may lead to frustration and anger. The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are variable; and symptoms may differ between individuals.
The risk of developing Alzheimer disease decreases with greater education and increases with earlier onset; in both groups, smoking has a positive effect on the risk and is a strong risk factor for men. The role of genetics is not large.
Many people with Alzheimer's disease rely on a caregiver or medical professionals for care, and many people also receive a prescription of an antidepressant in addition to cognitively stimulating therapies. There are many common medications to support the immune system but the main treatment for AD is cognitive behavior therapy or antidepressants. Older people with Alzheimer's disease often benefit from psychotherapy, and people with the more severe forms of AD are being provided with medications such as memantine and atypical antipsychotics in the hope they will slow cognitive decline. Treatment is highly variable among older people with Alzheimer's disease, but can include any of the above as well as behavioral interventions, a program of physical therapy in order to strengthen and maintain muscle, and some dietary supplementation.
In 2018, approximately 25 million Americans were already living with Alzheimer's disease and its related dementias. By 2050, however, the Alzheimer's Disease Association projected these numbers to rise to 76 million individuals.
Treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD will improve patient quality of life, but it is uncertain what role any single treatment will play in future disease progression or slowing down the disease process. In many respects, treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms does not appear to alter disease progression. While some neuropsychiatric symptoms can be treated and might improve function, the dementia progresses and no evidence suggests they are halting disease progression. Until such data arrive however, the decision to treat must be individualized.
We conclude that personalized tDCS results in antidepressant effects and behavioral improvement in both sexes with severe depression without affecting cognitive and functional improvements. The effects of tDCS were associated with changes in connectivity of the fronto-cingulo-insular networks. The clinical utility of tDCS for treatment of depression appears promising.
There has not been a major shift in the way the disease is treated and understood. There has been progress in the development of clinical trials to test novel medications and neuroimaging methods. For both of these new techniques, the most crucial aspect has not changed: the patient population.
If untreated, this disease can reduce a person's ability to enjoy life, and it can affect a family's sense of security (https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/alzheimers-disease-fact-sheet#:~:text=The%20late%20stage%20of%20Alzheimer's%20disease). Many patients live more than 10 years with this disease: that means that it can take a long time to learn about the disorder, but it takes a lifetime to lose your ability to live.
Data from a recent study have revealed that a personalized transcranial direct current stimulation protocol is a feasible therapeutic tool for mild-to-moderate depression. Therefore, our results should be used in clinical trials; however, we recommend more research be conducted on more patients and on longer time points.
This analysis shows that for personalized transcranial direct current stimulation there is broad usage of such treatments in combination with other therapies, but we could not see any specific effect due to the use of one such treatment.
In a recent study, findings of this investigation do not support the hypothesis that AD has a genetic component and that a genetic basis must exist for the disease.