A number of commonly used treatments for glioma are available, varying in efficacy and side effects. Overall survival after surgery tends to be comparable regardless of the nature of the infiltrating brain tissue. Patients with glioblastoma multiforme typically receive radiation therapy, while patients with anaplastic astrocytoma typically receive chemotherapy.
glioma has a genetic component, but may have no direct relation to the environment or lifestyle. On the other hand, occupational exposures can impact both glioma frequency and the severity of symptoms for a given individual. The role of diet or tobacco smoking requires further study. Finally, environmental factors that increase the burden of cancer among the populace also are likely to increase its burden among glioma patients.
Gliomas are brain tumors composed of cells of epithelial origin. They are generally classified into low-grade and high-grade types, which differ in their pathogenesis, clinical course and treatments.
At least 50,000 new cases of glioma are diagnosed each year in the United States. About 1 person dies of glioma in the United States every day.
The signs and symptoms of primary brain cancer are a manifestation of the tumour and can be divided into direct signs (e.g., a change in pupil or visual field) and indirect effects (e.g., loss of cognitive function or behavioural changes).
Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery can reduce the size of a glioma. However, the size of the tumor remains highly variable even after multimodality therapy; radiotherapy may reduce the size of the tumor in a subset of patients and allow for tumor shrinkage without surgical resection at follow-up.
Recently, the field of neuroscience and neuroscience research has become a major source of information about the biology and treatment of gliomas. A more complete picture of these tumors will be achieved once more new technologies such as gene therapy, gene therapy with antibody molecules, use of chemotherapeutics, radiotherapy and biological therapy have been fully investigated. It is also important to understand the processes that lead from the generation of some brain neoplasms to their malignant transformation. A major challenge will be to find the molecular elements that are responsible for the changes that occur in glial cells of the brain.
The FDA approved IDH1 and IDH2 mutation-positive glioma patient is a special case in which, the use of mitotic inhibitor (including mirdametinib), can result in the improvement in terms of progression-free survival and also quality of life by the cancer patients by decreasing tumor progression. Clin Cancer Res; 1-12. ©2013 AACR.
There have been a couple of small phase II trials on the action of mirdametinib. Some of which showed the possibility of an additional benefit for patients. Further studies in order to investigate this action would be advantageous. It would also increase the safety by analyzing the pharmacokinetic profile of mirdametinib.
Patients with HRAS mutant/KRAS wild-type tumors may have an improved survival rate when treated with mirdametinib; in this small trial, this was not supported from results of toxicity and toxicity-specific OS.
The safety and convenience of mirdametinib led to greater tolerability than gemcitabine in cancer patients with glioma. Mirdametinib was associated with significant improvements in QoL including QoL for patients with glioma. In a recent study, findings are significant both in terms of patient acceptance and for patient caregivers.
Recent findings of this study suggest that mirdametinib can be used as a single agent, but with other treatment options at the forefront that can significantly aid the patient's overall survival and quality of life.