Omacetaxine is an investigational taxane derivative developed by BioMarin Pharmaceuticals. It has been shown to inhibit growth of a wide range of human tumors in preclinical studies. Inhibition of microtubule dynamics is thought to underlie its antitumor activity. Omacetaxine was granted orphan drug designation by the FDA in May 2018 for metastatic colon cancer; it completed Phase 3 clinical trials as a single agent in December 2019.
The present study showed that the incidence and prevalence of HN were similar between men and women in Iran. The mean age at diagnosis of HN was 45 years and the mean survival time after diagnosis was 10 months. The most frequent HN was leukemia (23%). Other common HN included lymphoma (11%), myeloma (5%) and breast cancer (4%). The most prevalent type of HN was ALL (3.2%) followed by breast cancer (1.9%). The odds ratios for developing leukemia and lymphoma separately were 1.61 and 2.48 respectively (P=0.03). Multiple logistic regression model revealed that the risk of developing ALL in relation to psoriasis (OR: 1.
Hematological malignancies may present with symptoms similar to many benign conditions. The presenting symptoms depend on the stage of the disease process, the site of involvement, and the severity of the disease. High-grade lymphoma presents as painless abdominal mass, fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and anemia. Primary myeloproliferative disorders (PMPDs) typically present with splenomegaly, thrombocytosis, and annelation. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may present with advanced disease, including swollen lymph nodes and enlarged spleen, bone marrow infiltration, and anemia.
The available data indicate that there are many different kinds of hematological neoplasms that can be cured. In some cases, [chemotherapy] may help with remission but does not cure the disease. For example, one study demonstrated that patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who were treated with imatinib had significantly improved survival rates. However, these results have been questioned since the use of imatinib was discontinued due to adverse side effects. Another important consideration is that many patients with hematological malignancies, including lymphoma, have a very poor prognosis. Therefore, even if there is a tendency toward remission, this does not equate to cure.
The two main factors affecting progression of hematological malignancies are disease stage at diagnosis and age of onset. Neither underlying risk nor treatment modality appears to affect the rate of tumor progression.
The number of patients enrolled in clinical trials related to hematologic malignancies is increasing. Clinical trials have become an important part of medical treatment for many hematologic malignancies. Results from a recent paper shows that patients must be well informed regarding the potential benefits of clinical trials as well as the limitations of these studies, particularly in regard to enrollment criteria and risks of treatment. Physicians involved in hematologic care need to tailor clinical trials to maximize the benefit to patients.
These data suggest that hereditary hematologic neoplasms may occur more frequently in families with an identifiable genetic predisposition. This may reflect a common cause of the disease in these families rather than a common familial susceptibility.
OMac is well tolerated and has shown activity against various types of leukemic cells at micromolar concentrations. Dose-limiting toxicity was noticed only at higher concentrations. Oral administration of multimodal therapy incorporating OMac could be considered as a therapeutic strategy in AML, especially in STEMI patients.
In our study population, there were no differences in the prevalence of leukemia, lymphoma, or solid tumors among women with or without endometrial cancer. Hematologic malignancies appeared to result from an interaction between environmental exposures and genetic predisposition, rather than hormones.
The number of new cases of most hematologic malignancies rose during the 1980s and 1990s. However, these increases were not evenly distributed among pediatric and adult populations; they were highest among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years and Caucasians.
Between 2000 and 2014, no new treatments were approved for Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or multiple myeloma. In Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, there have only been two new treatments (Rituximab and Ibrutinib) since 2012. As to leukemia, there have been 10 new treatments since 2014, but none was approved for use in pediatric patients. A total of 28 new treatments have been approved for hematologic malignancies between 2000 and 2014, including three new treatments for relapsed or refractory patients. In general, progress has been slower than what could be expected considering the number of new therapies that have been developed and approved.