There may be a causal relationship; specifically, a habit arising from a tic may, with treatment, resolve, leaving the individual free from tics. A habitually ticked individual must first work with a habit trainer to identify which tic they have, and it may be difficult to identify a habit which can be removed by habit reversal techniques.
It is estimated that 1.6 million Americans were diagnosed with Tourette syndrome. Although the majority of cases (62-69%) were reported to be in males, these estimates should be interpreted with caution, as several factors such as diagnostic criteria and study base make it hard to draw firm conclusions. However, given the strong prevalence of tic disorders, and the burden imposed by Tourette syndrome on both sufferers and their families, the current estimates are very important.
Physical signs of tics include tremor, rapid movement of the arms and hands and muscle stiffness. Individuals may also have involuntary movements of the neck. There are also several social and cognitive signs. The disorder may affect social or family relationships, adversely impacting on quality of life and mental health. \n
Tourette syndrome is associated with abnormal dopaminergic neurotransmission, but the precise underlying mechanism and the molecular genetic basis, which are unknown, are yet to be elucidated. Current treatment options aim to improve the symptoms but do not address the etiology of the disorder.
In order to be classified as cured, the tic would have to be under control for at least 6 months. Tourette syndrome cannot be cured.
With the increasing use of medical school admission criteria, the identification of TS is now under-recognized. Most patients experience a history of anxiety and obsessive compulsions that develop in childhood and persist to adulthood. It was found that patients with TS experience a significantly higher rate of tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms on admission to the medical school compared to matched controls. A lower rate of medical school admission and a delayed academic progress are common features among patients with TS once admitted.
The most effective treatments for TS include behavior modifications combined with clozapine and fluoxetine, clozapine alone, fluoxetine alone, and combined treatments of clozapine and fluoxetine. Patients with comorbid disorders should be treated carefully, with some medication adjustments. Those with persistent tics and those with comorbid psychiatric problems such as depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, or attention deficits may require admission for behavioral treatment. There is no one-size fix for treatment when managing TS.
While tourette syndrome is not fatal and it is usually slowly debilitating, it is possible to cause severe damage to one's life and health. Tourette syndrome can affect family relationships, school, social relationships, and work. A major concern with Tourette syndrome is its effect on the quality of life of the person diagnosed. A person with Tourette syndrome will live with an impaired ability to function in the workplace, maintain relationships, pursue hobbies, deal with family and social demands, and make normal daily life easier. Tourette syndrome is often overlooked in the media when addressing the issue of Tourette. Tourette is misunderstood by many as an embarrassing, embarrassing thing. It is usually treated by different specialists.
The primary cause of Tourette syndrome is unknown. The common view among tic clinicians is that TS is a disorder where genetic, environmental, neuropsychiatric and neurovisceral factors play a significant role. However, while it has been suggested that Tourette syndrome is a genetic disorder that is often passed from parents to children, only a small proportion of Tourette syndrome families have a history of Tourette syndrome or tic phenotypes in first-degree relatives. Most children with Tourette syndrome (particularly male children) have a family history of tics or tic phenotype. This phenomenon suggests that the condition may be triggered by environmental and/or neuropsychiatric factors.
It is difficult to recommend any new treatments or medications with evidence to support their efficacy. The majority of individuals in clinical trials had to withdraw from studies early for lack of response to study treatment. In a recent study, findings of clinical trials do not allow prediction of the results in clinical practice or the potential efficacy of therapies in clinical practice.
This pilot data suggests that the habit reversal component of the program was not a good addition to existing treatment, and the additional cost was high. Therefore, if the benefits of habit reversal training are not validated with larger studies, this component should be removed from future versions of the program. Further work is required to determine the best way to add habit reversal training to existing clinical paradigms for treating obsessive compulsive behaviors.
HRT can be used after an acute tic episode with a small to moderate effect on symptoms. In patients presenting for chronic tic episodes, HRT cannot replace traditional treatment because of the long-term benefit seen with behavioral therapy. HRT also has no effect in the absence of tics.