This trial is evaluating whether Operant conditioning of motor evoked potentials will improve 4 primary outcomes and 1 secondary outcome in patients with Stroke. Measurement will happen over the course of Time Frame: before any training, after the 12th and 24th conditioning sessions, respectively, and 1 and 3 months after the 24th conditioning, respectively.
This trial requires 20 total participants across 1 different treatment group
This trial involves a single treatment. Operant Conditioning Of Motor Evoked Potentials is the primary treatment being studied. Participants will all receive the same treatment. There is no placebo group. The treatments being tested are not being studied for commercial purposes.
"Around 514,400 people in the United States will have a stroke in 2019. Around 9% of strokes occur in persons aged 65 and older. Both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are common, affecting around 1 in 50 women and 1 in 150 men. The average lifetime risk of stroke is 15.6%. Stroke occurs most abundantly in white men aged 65 and older. Around 1 in 6 survivors has disabling deficits in the arm or leg. Older persons represent the majority of stroke survivors, but about one-third of survivors are middle-aged persons. Approximately half of all stroke survivors are smokers at the time of the stroke." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Stroke is caused by the buildup of plaque in the heart and in the blood vessels of the brain. As the plaque builds up, it hardens into a mass of calcium and phosphorus, called "cholesterol". The buildup of this substance and the narrowing (atherosclerosis) of the blood vessels that carry nutrients to the heart (coronary arteries) is what causes the blockage of the vessels and the ensuing ischemia of the myocardium (heart muscle). An underlying factor in this is a buildup of high cholesterol and blood triglycerides (fatty acids) in the arterial blood, and as a consequence, the blood vessels have narrowed as well." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"A majority of stroke victims are being enrolled on intravenous thrombolysis, but many are not. While this intervention reduces mortality, it is associated with several significant adverse effects. Other common treatments include mechanical thrombectomy, endovascular treatment, aspiration, angiography and carotid stenting. Most are administered by neurointensiologists. However, the use of intravenous naloxone to reverse naloxone-induced respiratory depression is also common. These are all procedures performed in the neurovascular laboratory. Aspiration and mechanical thrombectomy are performed in the interventional radiology suite. Most treatments are performed at high-volume university-based referral centers." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"The risk of secondary stroke is less than 1% per year, so it can be safely assumed that the majority of strokes occur in patients with prior strokes and do not affect survival. However, ischemic stroke may not be a disease that can be cured, because only about 14% of patients with lacunar stroke survive one year and approximately 26% die of stroke related causes." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Stroke is the third most prevalent fatal disease, with more than 16 million people globally being affected annually. For most patients post stroke, disability and mortality rates are dependent on the degree of impairment and the duration of the stroke." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Stroke can cause stroke-related symptoms that are found in both the acute or acute stage of stroke and in the subacute or chronic stage. These signs include slurred speech, weakness or numbness of the face, arms, or legs, double vision, visual field defect, or visual neglect. These symptoms, or lack of them when signs of brain lesion are suspected, may enable the clinician to begin further investigation to ascertain the diagnosis. In the chronic stage of a stroke, gait disturbances may indicate a deficit in motor control, a common symptom of a stroke. The occurrence of seizures also suggests a possibility of brain damage." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"The effects of training in the FES system vary from individual to individual. The patient-to-patient variability is the main hurdle for the use of FES in clinical practice, but the current study provides some empirical data for a possible solution for optimizing the training system. The study implies that training of motor imagery can result in an improvement of MEPs in epileptics if adequate stimuli are introduced during the treatment." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Many patients with stroke may have a family history of stroke. The presence or absence of a family history in both first-ever and recurrent strokes increases the probability ratio of a stroke being familial over 0.2. The presence or absence of an affected family member does not alter the prediction of familial vs non-familial stroke." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"The most important risk factors for stroke are hypertension and high cholesterol. Other risks include being overweight or obese, smoking, smoking cessation and drinking to excessive amounts." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Results from a recent paper of this study provide clinical evidence that operant conditioning of MEPs could be of significant help in the rehabilitation of stroke patients." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"As in the study of the reflex component of MEP, the conditioning procedure does not modify the MEP amplitude, but rather modifies the MEP amplitude change and may lead to learning of the MEP amplitudes." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Results of this study do not support the safety of OPCME for people after strokes, strokes with significant intracranial hemorrhage, and people with intracranial lesions located not within the medial medulla oblongata." - Anonymous Online Contributor