A total of 12.4 million Americans suffer from stage 3-5 chronic kidney diseases by 2030. This constitutes a huge health burden to the population in the United States.
In children, the most common presenting symptom is non-specific abdominal pain. Other symptoms include weight loss, dehydration, fever, and anemia. An elevated serum creatinine level or a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are seen in the majority of children, but only a minority have blood work evidence for dehydration. An elevation in the triglyceride level is observed in a significant number of children. In adults, the most common presenting symptom is a swollen abdomen or ascites. Other symptoms include fever, cough, malaise, and unintentional weight loss. Blood tests are often normal in adults. In both children and adults, there is typically an increased rate of anemia and hypothyroidism.
This is an alarming cause of death worldwide, due not only to morbidity and mortality, but also to a loss of renal function. Chronic kidney disease is caused by multiple factors that interact with the kidney, its structure, and its functions.
CKD is a global issue affecting people from all walks of life, which are undergoing continual progress in diagnosing and managing the diseases. This progress is being hampered by lack of knowledge. This review highlights the problems that are being faced by society, healthcare professionals and people with CKD to help them in managing the disease and keeping a normal quality of life. More efforts are needed to develop more advanced diagnostic and management tools for CKD in order to cope better and better with CKD.
Among the available prescription drugs, the most common are ACE inhibitor, antihypertensive, steroid, diuretic, and NSAIDs. These treatments are more effective than herbal medicine against proteinuria, edema, and lipemia.
CKD in itself is not a disease but rather a spectrum. A high degree of uncertainty exists in regard to the long-term prognosis if CKD is cured. Therefore, the objective of CKD treatment should not be to cure the CKD, and treatment for CKD should be individualized.
We found that there are common side effects of CPN intervention including mild to moderate fatigue and dizziness. We also found some evidences for moderate to severe gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea, vomiting, or discomfort.
CHN does not seem to be more risky (worse) than routine care for people with chronic kidney diseases. However, CHN may be more effective and may reduce the number of tests ordered for risk of complications and increase the number of patients able to undergo a renal transplant.
The first phase 3 trial of an injectable erythropoietin-related pharmaceutical, a novel erythropoietin/anti-angiogenic drug, demonstrated safety while also demonstrating efficacy. In addition, a non-peptide thrombopoietin, ixibrofen hydrochloride (HCl), has demonstrated superiority over nonpeptide thrombopoietin in the treatment of [anemia and osteoporosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD)](Hospitalizations for CKD and ESKD patients) in phase 3.
The CHN programme is effective in enhancing the ability of patients to access specialist care and reduce hospitalizations, with some positive effects seen at 2 yr following commencement of the CHN program. However, its effectiveness is transient for one-year improvement in the quality of life.
CHNS intervention has had a role in providing information to patient and their family on dialysis and improving health care service. Although not significant, there was trend to improvement in self-care behavior and renal care. We are hopeful that the CHNS may be effective in improving the quality of renal care.
There is very little known and evidence to support the use of complementary therapies for chronic kidney disease. A large number of well-designed randomized controlled trials need to be performed to make up for the gap that exists in knowledge regarding chronic kidney disease to determine whether these therapies are effective or not. However, this research is ongoing and it is likely to shed more light on this very important issue.