Between 3.5 and 11 million Americans are born prematurely each year in the United States. Approximately one-tenth of them die in infancy or in early childhood.
Premature birth is a significant and growing public health issue encompassing both short-term as well as long-term complications, especially in the developing world. It is not only important to understand the mechanisms and epidemiologic associations of preterm birth, but also the effect of this public health problem on the human condition and the economic burden of prematurity.
Multiple potential preventive strategies are available for premature birth. Although most of the available evidence on therapies for premature birth suggests little benefit, clinicians may need to be cautious in implementing these interventions. Future research needs to elucidate the optimal timing and duration of treatment and identify the potential effects of treatment on long-term deficits and functional outcomes.
A complex interplay between genetics, infections, and environmental factors in pregnancy underlie premature birth. The premature birth risk is a dynamic and adaptable response to life's many demands and changes that are normally encountered in human pregnancy. This model provides a unifying link between the many and diverse, and seemingly unique, mechanisms underlying premature birth.
Preterm delivery must not be construed as a disease entity, with possible adverse consequences for the infant. Preterm infants can remain in health if given appropriate management, avoiding potentially harmful maternal treatments to cure a "disease of the womb" in an advanced stage of development.
The signs of a premature birth can be ascertained by listening carefully to the mother's heartbeat, a hard or soft fetal sounds and the action and reaction of the infant.\n\nIt may be necessary to have a number of tests to establish the diagnosis of premature birth and the cause. This is mainly to see if there are any conditions that may relate to the timing of births during pregnancy.\n\nMost premature births are associated with premature rupture of membranes, or PROM. PROM is usually evident when the membranes between the amniotic sac and the cervix begin to break, releasing a small amount of amniotic fluid into the surrounding vagina.
The mean maternal age at delivery is 34.2 years in Canada. The mean maternal age at birth for the Canadian population as a whole was estimated at 30.2 years. Since most women in Canada give birth later than 26 to 30 years of age, the prevalence of preterm birth rises in the age group over the age of 26–30 years. The prevalence of preterm births is increasing in women of Canadian Indian ancestry. Preterm birth is increasingly being diagnosed at much earlier ages in men (i.e., at the age of 20–25 years) compared with previous decades. Overall, Canadian birth rate is higher than the United States birth rate.
Centeringpregnancy has been described as the most widely adopted intervention for decreasing the rate of LBW. Although its efficacy in decreasing the rate of LBW has been supported by multiple studies, its effects on maternal morbidity and mortality, fetal and childhood morbidity, and financial cost remain unknown. However, based on our analysis, we believe that centeringpregnancy has the ability to improve LBW and maternal and infant mortality, fetal and childhood morbidity, and financial costs. Given that centeringpregnancy may be more feasible in resource-developing settings, there is a need to conduct more research on centeringpregnancy's impacts.
The use of centeringpregnancy may be beneficial for high-risk patients if they are being informed about the potential risks and are willing to take part in the intervention.
The evidence from the published research indicates that centered pregnancies are not at increased risk of complications such as preterm birth, a low birthweight or intrauterine death. However, there are risks associated with centered pregnancy and every pregnancy. Therefore, each pregnancy must be evaluated individually.
The current scientific literature supports the concept of centeringpregnancy. Results from a recent paper of a recently published study demonstrated the increased use of centeringpregnancy in the last decade (n=15,000; p<0.0001). The authors suggest that the improved treatment with centeringpregnancy does not result from an increased knowledge, experience, perception, or willingness to use this treatment; rather, it was an indirect result of a new scientific evidence.