The mainstay of medical and surgical treatment of foot ulcer is immobilization. Surgical therapy is often required. Stable healing of foot ulcers may be facilitated by application of a removable boot called an cast or orthosis to immobilize the foot. Some feet may require amputation. Lifestyle change is recommended.
Over 50,000 people suffer a foot ulcer each year in the United Kingdom. It has a major adverse impact on society; a study in the 1980s found that a foot ulcer resulted in 0.3% of lost working days. In 2003, of those with foot ulcers, 7.4% had at least one chronic underlying condition. The average cost of management per foot ulcer in the UK in 2006 was £2062.
The risk of the ulcer occurring is increased by diabetes and peripheral artery disease; and the duration and degree of these risks are correlated with the incidence of the ulcer. The cause of the ulcer is often multiphasic, as it most commonly involves a chronic underlying disease of high blood pressure, with or without vascular disease.
Some signs of foot ulcers include pain in the toes or toes and heels, and loss of sensation. As foot ulcers are painful, early identification is critical. Early management might prevent foot ulcer progression and lead to better outcomes. foot- ulcers.gov. American Academy of Family Physicians Network. Clinical practice guidelines. American Academy of Family Physicians.
Foot ulcers are highly painful and rarely completely heal. The majority of these patients continue to incur significant disability. If foot ulcer pain is relieved and a heel callus is present, then it can be considered to be cured.
As with many chronic diseases, there are predictable risk factors, including gender, age, and smoking; but there are many others. Although the number of people who develop PNUs is small, many of the problems of these people who do occur are often serious and debilitating, so intervention is important to avoid more than a hundred thousand amputations each year.
Use of a synthetic hybrid-scale fiber matrix dressing for postoperative wound prevention is a useful wound dressing in the treatment of chronic lower leg wounds. Use of this dressing in chronic wound care could allow for reduction in wound care times and ease of managing postoperative wounds.
There is still very limited evidence that demonstrates new treatment options for patients with chronic foot ulcers. Current research supports the concept that the healing cascade for chronic foot ulcers begins in the periphery and involves many systemic factors. Research in chronic foot ulcers includes treatment options such as anticoagulant use, local wound care and antibiotic products.
The use of the synthetic hybrid-scale fiber matrix showed more clinical improvement than placebo to treat aseptic foot ulcers. However, the application of this device has many advantages. It is effective in a relatively short time and has a long-term potential for improving the quality of life. With proper clinical care, people who are recovering on their own can recover the full range of physical activity that they once were capable of. This device can be used by both athletic and nonathletic people. Also it has a low risk of infection, is fairly safe to apply to the skin and does not cause irritation or allergic reaction.
A synthetic composite material incorporating a synthetic polymer framework fiber matrix has been found to be a promising alternative strategy for the treatment and regeneration of the diabetic foot and Achilles tendon rupture.
Synthetic hybrid-scale fiber matrix is effective for a variety of kinds of ulcers but is not effective in all kinds of ulcers. We did not find evidence that the synthetically produced synthetic hybrid-scale fiber matrix is useful when used with other therapies.
Several research findings suggest an urgent need for prevention and treatment strategies targeted at the diabetic foot and at the at-risk patient. Better understanding of the physiopathology of foot ulcer formation and the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting at the diabetic foot is therefore a priority.