Hypertension seems to be primarily determined by environmental triggers, whereas disease triggers are largely insignificant in hypertension. While hypertension can certainly be controlled, even in advanced cases, it is likely that most patients will have to accept their health status for years to come. In the light of current medical and public health treatments, cure remains highly unlikely and long-term care is recommended for all patients with hypertension in order to prevent organ damage.
Most prevalent treatment for hypertension is medication. For mild to moderate cases of hypertension, medications targeting the renin-angiotensin system and/or calcium channel blockers should be considered. For those with significant complications, the first-line of treatment should be based on patient risk.
In all patients with renovascular hypertension a pulse pressure greater than 120 mmHg was identified as a characteristic sign of hypertension. The pulse pressure was not increased in patients with hypertension from any cause. Left ventricle systolic function should also be assessed.\n
Hypertension is caused by a complex interaction of factors such as the blood pressure (BP) reading, blood sugar (A1C) levels, ethnicity, diet, lifestyle, exercise, and genetics.\n\nOther health problems that are often not recognized as part of the risk of developing hypertension are high cholesterol, high potassium, or heart disease. As the BP is higher, the likelihood of hypertension is also higher.\n\nDietary and lifestyle factors can affect a person’s risk for developing hypertension in the future. Lifestyle habits such as diet, exercise, and alcohol consumption can be used as a screening measure for hypertension risk.
Hypertension can occur in the absence of a history of smoking and can arise over an extended period of time, thus being considered a 'latent' condition. It is estimated that by 2035 half of all UK mortality is related to non-communicable disease, particularly heart disease. It is estimated that half of the UK population over one year old is hypertensive, and by 2015 the prevalence of hypertension in the United Kingdom will have risen to 55.3% compared to a 2011 estimate of 39.3%.
The present review includes a literature review on the different treatment options for hypertension like beta blockers, alpha blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, thiazide diuretics, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, and other non-traditional intervention like acupuncture, and a comprehensive overview including all the existing publications for the use of medical therapy for hypertension. A review on clinical investigations including recent trials for treatment options for hypertension is also presented.
The current self-management protocol for hypertension care is safe. However, it should be recommended as the next level of care in hypertensive patients in clinical settings with the purpose of achieving the guidelines of treatment. But there may be a need for future studies concerning adherence to self-management protocol.
Hypertension occurs at similar rates irrespective of race, gender, age, marital, occupation, and social status. The mean age at diagnosis of hypertension in the United States has increased significantly over the past 15 years (1978 versus 2003), and the prevalence of hypertension is increasing by 1% per year (2010). Recent findings may reflect changes in diagnostic guidelines, improved detection of hypertension, and changes in demographics. In the United States, blacks and Hispanics have higher prevalence of (non-hypertensive) obesity than whites (2008). Although the association between obesity and hypertension is not very strong, it is more prominent among black women than among white women. The presence of obesity can result in the earlier diagnosis of hypertension.
The common side effects of the SMT is an increase in heartburn, headache, dizziness, insomnia, dry mouth, constipation and dyspepsia. It had no impact on other side effects when compared with the standard care.
The most advanced self-management protocol can be safely administered in conjunction with medication therapy. The protocol is feasible and can save time and money as well as improve satisfaction of patient and clinician because it can be easily replicated as needed. It may provide improved results by educating patients and allowing them to communicate their own needs and take more personal responsibility for their illness.
Self-management care alone did not improve quality-of-life results as indicated by HRQL. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in baseline and post-intervention in terms of patient perceptions and perceptions towards self-management care for the patients with hypertension.