The combination of a systolic BP below 90/60 mm Hg on repeated measurement and/or an atrial contraction that is lower than 5/15 cm2/min/ml or lower than 15% of that predicted on the basis of age, height and sex are clinically significant. An abnormal ECG, with signs of heart failure, justifies a further workup.
Survival can't be predicted by HF status at initial diagnosis nor by HF trajectory during follow-up. Survival can, however, be predicted by age and the presence or absence of AF at initial diagnosis.
Heart failure, the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, is a complex and debilitating disorder associated with poor prognosis and high risk of death. It results from heart failure and cardiac remodeling after cardiac insult. Currently, the management of heart failure has not produced any significant changes in prognosis since the late 1970s. A more comprehensive management of heart failure and heart injury, and better understanding of the molecular basis underpinning their pathogenesis, is required for a meaningful improvement in the outcome of patients with heart failure.
The exact cause of many heart failure cases is unknown. Although heart failure can be triggered by various types of disease, some triggers are clearly determined and controllable.\n
Patients with heart failure and their carers benefit from education, medication management and support in order to maintain well-being and self-care. Exercise or cardiac rehabilitation may be used as alternatives to artificial support in addition to medication. When pharmacological therapy does not meet needs, many clinicians prefer pacing as the treatment of first choice. The importance and choice of treatment choices are more nuanced than can be predicted by health statistics, clinical practice guidelines or official treatment guidelines.
An estimated 5.7 percent (1.5 million) of Americans were hospitalized for heart failure in 1999, and 2.9 percent (773,000) died of the disease for a total of 10.2 percent. Heart failure occurred with slightly more frequency in women. Age was associated with more recent hospitalizations for heart failure, but not with mortality.
This trial demonstrates that alerts are indeed effective in identifying patients for optimal interventions and may also support health care providers as they establish rational and systematic practices to enhance the dissemination of evidence-based therapies.
Pharmacological approaches aimed at treating acute heart failure have resulted in little change. The current pharmacological approaches have failed to show conclusive evidence that ACE inhibition and angiotensin receptor blockers, or digoxin, have any benefit in prolonging survival following a heart attack. A long-term trial comparing angiotensin receptor blocker with carvedilol, showed long-term benefit in those taking the angiotensin receptor agent. In particular, the results showed increased event-free survival (that is, a lack of heart attack, arrhythmias, stroke and death) in those following the angiotensin blocker compared with those on a carvedilol.
The main criterion for trial eligibility should be an increase in life expectancy of ≥2 yr. If the condition is already in clinical remission, additional treatment is justified. If it is not in clinical remission, there should be some improvement before a clinical trial is indicated for the condition. People with severe symptoms related to the condition and/or a history of malignant arrhythmias should not undergo a trial.
An active educational approach aimed at all healthcare providers resulted in improvements in both HF and CHF patients in terms of quality of life. In addition, the active educational approach was accompanied by the improvement in the knowledge and compliance of some of the healthcare providers and resulted in significant improvements in the HF and CHF patients with respect to the quality of life.
There were few breaches of best practice alert in patients with HF, the majority of whom did not receive medication. There was a high rate of evidence-based prescribing practices.
In patients with unexplained symptoms of heart failure, the cause of heart failure is less commonly identifiable than often thought. The most frequent causes of heart failure are the consequence of chronic coronary artery disease or idiopathic (having no known cause). The causes of heart failure in these patients can be defined as either the consequence of left ventricular dysfunction or, more seldom, as an incorrect referral. When causes are identified, it is often possible to select the appropriate treatment and the prognosis is usually excellent; however, treatment may be difficult or even impossible in some instances because the underlying cause is refractory to treatment.