The ACS calculated that 4.3 million women would develop gdm during pregnancy and 0.76 % of maternal diabetes pregnancies result in stillbirth or low birth weight delivery. Also, 24.9 % of diabetic pregnancies will end in stillbirth or low birth weight delivery annually.
[Women can lose up to 10% of their body weight between 2 weeks and 6 months before they are expected to conceive as a result of changes in their hormonal levels. When their blood sugar levels in the early weeks are low, the body responds by producing insulin, the insulin-producing pancreas responds by producing insulin and by storing new cells in the body to produce insulin later on. As body weight remains at or above the expected level, more insulin is produced, and, as body fat is not converted into insulin as fast as it could be, insulin production is slowed down. One thing keeps it from being absorbed by the cells in the body is the blood vessels that move the insulin from the pancreas into the bloodstream.
Gestational diabetes is a common problem during late pregnancy, and most of these women will not suffer complications from gestational diabetes. It does, however, carry a moderate to high risk for future development of atherosclerosis and hypertension after delivery. It is also a risk factor for maternal and fetal morbidity. We therefore recommend that GDM be considered in women with signs and symptoms of gestational hypertension or placental insufficiency in late pregnancy.
In a recent study, findings of this study show that a sustained reduction of insulin resistance and the need for insulin in patients who were previously insulin dependent in early pregnancy are seen in a large percentage of the study group. In addition, most pregnancies in our study show sustained resolution of gdm, mostly without additional intervention.
There are many commonly used treatments in the prenatal management of (gdm); these treatments include the use of exercise, diet, and gestational weight loss. The use of acupuncture is also frequently prescribed to treat gestational gdm, as well as dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. For obese patients, weight loss programmes can also be prescribed to decrease or stop gdm. Gdm is estimated to affect approximately 70% of pregnant women in industrialized nations. The incidence of treatment with diet, exercise, or weight loss is similar among the population of women with gdm.
The impact of lifestyle intervention varies dramatically even in the context of the same diabetes condition. It is important to evaluate not only the degree of improvement, but also the impact on other patient-carerelated factors.
In a recent study, findings provide evidence that an intervention that aims to promote both lifestyle choices by patients and clinicians improves the HRQoL of the target population.
These data suggest that genetic predisposition to GDM runs at least among some of the affected families in the Scandinavian population. The genetic risk for GDM appears to be determined mainly by the number of affected children in an affected pedigree, with no other detectable contribution.
Lifestyle therapies to treat obesity are evolving to target the metabolic, lifestyle and physical aspects of the patient's condition. The combination of these factors may provide substantial reductions in the symptoms of morbid obesity. The combination of a low calorie diet with the addition of exercise leads to improvement in obesity-induced comorbid conditions such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension and type II diabetes. Moreover, the combination of exercise with cognitive-behavioural modification (C-B-M) leads to the greatest improvement in weight, obesity-induced comorbid conditions and quality of life.
GDM is one of the most common chronic medical problems during pregnancy. However, gestational diabetes mellitus has many severe, even maternal and fetal, complications including stillbirths, preterm deliveries, and low birth weights. To prevent these complications, it is very important to diagnose early and follow up carefully with patients in order to control their glycemia. There is no one ideal treatment for gestational diabetes. But there are many medications and diets that have been approved for use in diabetic pregnancy.