Most patients in this study had either a history of heart attack (89.5%) or a history of angina pectoris (81.3%), which usually started at a younger age. The two groups had similar risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The main difference between the two groups was the severity of obstructive coronary artery disease. The severity varied from being mild to fatal. It is thus important to screen for CAD in every patient with atherosclerotic manifestations; and in patients with positive tests, or in persons with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, a coronary angiography will provide details about the severity and the location of the coronary lesions.
If appropriately treated with aggressive therapy, many people can survive with good health outcomes and with or without comorbidities. However, those who have atherosclerotic disease have considerable chances of developing complications/life-threatening events (myocardial infarction and/or angina) during the late stages of their lives. Despite the good control of risk factors, coronary artery disease cannot be cured.
About 5 million Americans have coronary artery disease a year. In some areas, such as Michigan and New York, the leading cause of death in these individuals is coronary artery disease.
In an urban patient population, coronary artery disease poses a significant medical threat, with a significant economic impact on the health care delivery system. The treatment options are more comprehensive than simple medication alone, with a low level of evidence on the effectiveness of treatment.
Coronary artery disease is an aging disease of the heart in which the arteries gradually thicken and narrow, creating a narrowing and weakening of the arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle. Because the heart must supply its oxygen and nutrients to over 40 million people per day, coronary artery disease leads to a wide variety of health problems, from chest pain and difficulty breathing to heart attacks and sudden death.
Individuals with known risk factors may be screened for abnormal heart health, which may aid detection of coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease is the first known coronary artery disease risk factor to be effectively prevented.
The most recent research indicates that statins are an effective way of reducing both the severity and number of strokes and heart attacks. The benefits can be expected in people with [high levels of LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol)] and also those who are in their 80s and the 90s and may have atherosclerosis of the artery walls. To find out if you are at high [risk for heart disease] visit [Power’s Guide to Heart Disease at Home and Work"
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Coronary artery disease was a common and growing problem in this population with an increasing patient age. In our referral population, >40% had had PCI, and 23% had a heart attack. A history of recent angina was prevalent (60%). Those with coronary artery disease were generally elderly, predominantly male, had a high LVEF, and most were receiving cardiac medications after a myocardial infarction. More than half of the patients were on statins, but more than one-third did not take aspirin. Among those with coronary artery disease (CAD), half had a revascularization, most were receiving aspirin, and half were taking it routinely.
Common side effects of cytisine, such as vomiting, diarrhoea, and headache, have been observed in clinical trials. The risk of side effects should be expected from any therapeutic agent in clinical usage.
Cytisine is safe and well tolerated. In the present study, cytisine significantly reduced the total symptoms scores and the quality of life parameters (i.e., the patient's perception of quality of life (PIAQOL)), compared to the placebo group and enhanced angina-related quality of life (i.e., the patient's perception of angina). The positive effects of the cytisine were also maintained in the follow-up phase (3-month follow-up), i.e., no significant worsening of the treatment response was seen. Therefore, cytisine may represent a promising new treatment for patients suffering from CAD.
In view of the fact that the mortality rate is high, patients with CAD have a higher morbidity rate. In most parts of the world, there are high rates of smoking. The risk factors of morbidity and mortality are present, in association with the disease.
Cytisine is considered a complementary treatment based on its known anti-platelet and anti-coagulant activities. Although there is no evidence showing the effectiveness of this treatment, as a prodrug, it is used in combinations with other medications. Cytisine has been used in combination with aspirin, thrombolytics, beta-blockers and, in rare cases, warfarin, atenolol, prasugrel, and heparins. Therefore, there is a need for further studies on this combination, with specific emphasis on the timing and dosage required of cytisine in order to obtain effective antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects.