A large proportion of individuals treated for a brain injury recover. The goal of treatment is to reduce symptoms and complications, particularly after injury, but there are no treatment-specific survival benefits. The treatment should be appropriate for a given patient's medical and psychological condition.
Brain injuries develop due to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors. The neurological and functional impairment related to brain injuries is complex and has a large influence on the quality of life, work, and social relationships of the injured individual.\n
The brain is a complex organ surrounded by the skull that houses the cerebrum. It is lined with a thin coat of grey matter, or grey matter, which protects the brain and contains a wide range of cells responsible for transmitting nerve impulses and regulating body functions. The gray matter serves as the principal neural connections while the white matter is made up of delicate fibers, which do not have a nerve impulse carrying capacity. The brain can also be damaged by brain injuries or by tumors. Brain injuries can be severe and often cause long term problems. These injuries can occur as a result of traumatic brain injuries (TBI), stroke, birth injury, metabolic abnormalities and many other types of causes.
Brain injury is common and serious with many potential consequences. If the goal of the US National Institutes of Health is to reduce the burden of brain injury in the US then our findings emphasize the urgency of developing a national strategy for brain injury prevention in the US with a focus on primary and secondary prevention. The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Traumatic Brain Injury concluded in 2009 that research is needed to determine whether trauma can increase the risk of future brain injury, while brain trauma in childhood can increase likelihood of future issues. Brain injury is associated with significant loss of life and productivity.
Multiple methods of brain injury evaluation including imaging and evaluation for biochemical parameters may be useful for long-term management of brain injury. In the future, it is hoped that innovative biologic therapeutic approaches will be developed for brain injury.
Signs and symptoms will be more pronounced with a head injury versus a concussive injury. The severity of concussion is graded based on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at the time of arrival. Patients with a GCS score greater than 12 will be more likely to recover from a mild head injury, which means a more severe injury. In patients with a GCS score between 9 and 12, the injury is usually non-severe and can almost always be safely treated at the scene by first responders. Patients with a GCS score under 9 will likely go on to develop clinical signs and symptoms of brain injuries and are at an exceptionally high risk for permanent brain damage and mortality.
There are several well established risk factors for brain injuries; a detailed history of these conditions is critical during clinical evaluation and in the diagnosis of brain injuries. A diagnosis in the medical record of a potential [traumatic brain injury](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/traumatic-brain-injury) cannot be substituted for a formal concussion history: A detailed history of prior concussions is essential in the management of a patient presenting with a brain injury.
Cst had a positive effect on QoL-AIT and QoL-CPS, in the domains of physical well-being, social-well-being, and global health in the first month post-injury, and throughout the 12-month period post-injury. Findings of this study support the need for a larger randomized prospective trial of cst with a control arm for the effectiveness of cst in improving QoL measures post-TBI.
Patients may want information before considering enrollment in a clinical trial. Trial-specific information is available on the clinicaltrials.gov database. We recommend a one-page brochure is developed for patients to consider and discuss with clinicians.
It is essential to evaluate the common side effects of cst in patients with moderate to severe brain injury. The side effects that we have described can be managed by using self-management approaches, a more conservative use of medications and the use of an objective scale to record the patient's data. Further research is required to determine the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cst in an extended clinical scenario.
As neuroprotective treatments become more common; new drugs such as neuroinflammaging-related drugs will be able to treat brain injuries as well as preventing them. As more research is completed, new treatments will surely be found to help brain injury patients for the future.
There is a growing interest in utilizing cognitive support with individuals with brain injury in order to optimize behavioral and neuropsychologic outcomes and reduce the severity of the symptoms experienced by those with severe brain injuries.