Brain injuries cannot be cured, as many sufferers lose the ability to experience pleasure or pleasure-giving stimuli., however, cognitive behaviour therapy can provide significant improvement in quality of life.
Many of the treatments commonly used in head injury and concussion centers are not supported by the published scientific literature. The most efficacious interventions are those that are proven to improve long-term outcomes after injury. Clinicians in these centers may therefore be inappropriately prescribing treatments that are too aggressive, inappropriate for their patients, and/or are costly. Such inappropriate treatment may include the use of the outdated medication sodium oxybate (SaOP) to treat hyponatremia in head-injured patients.
An estimated 5.9 million Americans suffer a brain injury each year from a traumatic or nontraumatic cause, the majority of which are related to traumatic brain accidents (TBIs). It is estimated that TBIs account for 40% of traumatic brain injuries. As an important clinical priority in the U.S., the NINDS is committed to further study of the causes and prevention of TBI.
Brain injuries are often found in the elderly, a group of which the majority suffers from brain injuries. A higher rate of brain injuries occur at higher education level and with higher motor score. The mechanisms through which brain damage occurs are not well known.
Although CT scans are not perfect, the physicians can get an idea of the location of the injuries, and if necessary, administer the appropriate treatments. It seems necessary to have a protocol to detect brain injuries and have a system to manage victims.
Brain injuries consist of two parts: brain injuries from physical trauma are physical damage in the brain and injuries from other sources are damage of the brain from the outside. For brain injuries from outside the brain, the causes are brain injuries from internal or external physical trauma, and the external causes are accidents, chemical poisoning, brain tumors, stroke, brain haemorrhage and brain abscess, and congenital deformity (birth defects).
Optic Nerve Ultrasound Trials are an interesting approach. The authors feel that patients should be offered the opportunity for future research for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes. An optic nerve ultrasonography trial for the assessment of treatment needs is likely to be a good example. However, more data are needed before adopting recommendations as to its routine use in clinical practice.
Nerve-flow studies are an ultrasound test performed to determine optic nerve size under the skin. Optic-nerve ultrasounds are used to examine optic nerve size or infer if the optic nerve maybe compressed after trauma. Clinicians can also refer patients with optic nerve ultrasounds to magnetic resonance imaging to detect other optic-nerve abnormalities. However, the clinical significance of a nerve-flow study is questionable in patients with normal optic nerves. Also, clinical studies of nerve-flow studies have failed to produce significant findings in studies with a small study size. Therefore, nerve-flow studies should be considered an investigational imaging tool only.
Although U is the "gold standard" method for monitoring ICP after CTM in children, U in combination with TTT may be sufficient for monitoring ICP if it is available to patient or care provider.
OCT is the most advanced imaging method for assessing the optic nerve head. OCT can image several areas of the nerve including the inner and outer surfaces of the nerve. This is important since the nerve is thin in most cases and does not show well on T1W MRI or T2-weighted sequences. OCT has advantages over ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it can directly visualize the nerve without contrast. The downside of OCT is that it requires a transducer with a diameter of 3 to 8 mm. The first commercial OCT scanner was developed by the Optos Corporation, and since then several new designs have emerged.
There are significant and unique regional age patterns of brain injury. Further research is needed to determine the clinical relevance of the age patterns and whether they can be used to change current recommendations or improve patient outcomes.
The current study used a novel method to investigate the etiologic patterns of brain injuries. The study concluded that traumatic brain injury is a multifaceted etiology involving both intrinsic genetic factors as well as acquired environmental factors.