Concussions related to sports have increased in frequency and severity since the introduction of the National Basketball Association concussion rule in 2014. Concussions in other sports are also common, although the rate of related injury may exceed that seen in basketball concussions.
The brain may be injured by the initial impact or the secondary brain injury. The initial injury may cause cognitive deficits, seizures, aphasia, and other signs of brain damage. The secondary injury may produce additional cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms, including dissociative episodes.
Brain concussion occurs at a high incidence. Older athletes appear more susceptible than younger athletes. Concussion in hockey may be associated with body checking, while repetitive concussions in American football may be aggravated by a head-first style of tackling.
Brain concussion, a life-threatening injuries commonly experienced by athletes, can be effectively treated. Recovery of consciousness can be achieved in most athletes with appropriate intervention.
Common treatments for patients with self-reported brain injuries include standard neurological assessments, physical therapy and a variety of medications and procedures. More recent treatments and devices include computer-based assessments and home exercise programs designed to improve recovery.
Brain injuries are a growing concern. Brain injury can be the result of head trauma such as a blow to the head. Often, brain injuries are not seen until several weeks after the original event, and this delay can give us a lot to hide from our patients when it happens. It is important for medical doctors who do concussions to be aware about when to call for help, to assess every patient for concussions, and take full histories of each patient.
This report confirms that concussions run in families for both female and male athletes. Recent findings suggest that concussion risk can be reduced by understanding a parent' s concussion history as an example of a familial factor that increases the risk of concussions in the offspring.
[In this retrospective analysis, PSC seemed safe for subjects who had received PSC following concussion] (http://cdc.gov/ncidod/fede[ra](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/ra)l/research/programs.html). Because PSC is based on the assumption that cognitive deficits are temporary, the results of this retrospective study suggest that PSC may be safe. However, a randomized, prospective study in a group of individuals with and without concussion is warranted.
The findings of this study suggest that considering trials for brain injury is more appropriate than considering concussion in a study sample as a whole because participants with brain injury were more likely to show clinically relevant recovery from their concussion. In a recent study, findings suggest that trials for brain injury may be needed to identify treatments that can halt or hasten recovery for brain injury patients in a more specific manner.
The combination of PST and cognitive therapy is effective at improving the symptomatology of postconcussive psychosis and may therefore be a good added tool when treating postconcussive psychosis.
The National Football League considers players to have a brain concussion if they show one of the following:\n1. at least two of four of these criteria were met.\nThe diagnosis of a concussion differs among three national sports governing bodies (NFL, US Olympic Committee, National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA). The NCAA and the NFL allow their players a post-game neurological exam to help diagnose and monitor concussion. One or even a few exams does not detect all traumatic brain injuries, and may detect only mild injuries which have long-term neurological complaints or impairment. The USOC also allows a players to be diagnosed if his helmet bottoms out or he's knocked unconscious. This allows the player to be taken out of the game.
This article provides new information about an evidence-based treatment that may enhance outcomes in a diverse population of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. The PAST-C, an inpatient treatment facility, has been implementing a program to improve a patient's ability to engage in meaningful problem solving. These outcomes have been demonstrated in the behavioral assessments of the BAVQ. The PAST program incorporates the use of simulation training, a practice approach for improving knowledge and skills to the detriment of the patient. A number of studies have demonstrated the generalization of simulation training for treating cognitive difficulties associated with TBI. The use of simulation training in conjunction with conventional strategies may enhance the treatment outcomes for cognitive deficits, by improving general skills of the participants.