Aortic stenosis is an important cause of valvular heart disease. The common congenital form is most commonly found in older individuals. It was once thought to be confined to Caucasians, but has recently been described in all racial groups.
There are numerous signs and symptoms of valvular disease in children and infants. A thorough assessment of the heart is extremely important. Children and infants can usually make the distinction between 'normal' and valvular heart disease. Valvuloplasty is an effective treatment for congenital bicuspid aortic valve, aortic stenosis, and moderate-severe aortic regurgitation, if the valve is not too regurgitant or if there are no other symptoms of congenital heart disease. The differential diagnosis must be considered as well.
Patients with asymptomatic AS may benefit from AVR, but patients who present with symptoms related to AS should be carefully assessed before the procedure is performed. If it is possible and reasonable to postpone AVR, a prospective follow-up can be started.
Aortic valve replacement is a definitive treatment for severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis. Cardiopulmonary bypass is indispensable for the surgery, but it has been shown that surgery is feasible without cardiopulmonary bypass. Aortic stenotic patients with severe coronary artery atherosclerotic obstruction, such as patients with type I aortic valve disease, can be suitable for aortic valve replacement by a minimally invasive technique. Surgery is recommended for symptomatic patients with rheumatic, congenitally calcified aortic stenosis and severe calcification of the aortic valve, especially with concurrent coronary atherosclerosis.
The causes of aortic stenosis are manifold, and often multifactorial in nature. In general, though there is no single pathophysiology of aortic stenosis which accounts for the majority of aortic valve disease, this pathophysiology is largely consistent across the spectrum of aortic valve stenosis. Aortic valve stenosis involves lesions that span the entire spectrum of degenerating aortic valves from mild sclerosis of the aortic cusps to calcification and calcification. This spectrum of degenerative aortic stenosis is characterized by a spectrum of cellular responses and degenerative changes in the aortic valve.
In 2014, 1.8 million Americans were diagnosed with aortic valve stenosis. Almost half (48.8%) of those with aortic valve stenosis were 65 years of age or older.
The common side effects of the Medtronic EVOLUT™ prosthesis are related to the mechanical nature of the device. Some of the devices are constructed to the surgeon's preference and are less likely to cause problems when implanted. If complications occur, a cardiologist can assist with the choice of subsequent prostheses to avoid the need for open heart surgery. Patients can be assured that Medtronic is offering a range of alternative prostheses.
The studies that were reviewed were either small in sample size or had very short follow-up intervals. One study used a single-armed comparison which may have prevented the identification of a significant difference in treatment outcomes between the two groups. The data suggests that new treatments for aortic stenosis are very promising. Future trials are urgently needed with larger patient samples to test new treatments.
Compared with the SEVX prosthesis, the Medtronic Pro+ system was associated with improved AVR, and patients' HRQoL was significantly better after aortic valve replacement due to stenosis.
Men should consider aortic valve stenosis and women should consider tricuspid valve stenosis when deciding on clinical trials, while women should consider cardiac valve repair when considering trial options. All participants should be in their 70s or 80s. Age criteria for clinical trials are not based on an absolute number of participants. However, there are no studies conducted with older patients, so older patients might be overlooked when looking at clinical trial data.
We observed a significant impact on quality of life and work productivity in patients with AVS. Despite having a mean age of 46.2 yr, AVS patients reported significant morbidity and a reduced quality of life. In addition, they were often dissatisfied for their AVS status. Recent findings underscore the importance of AVS diagnosis and treatment.
Findings from a recent study, based on retrospective observational data, found no evidence to suggest that rheumatic disease, rather than valvular degeneration, is the primary cause of AS.