Marijuana use is now prevalent in the general U.S. population since 1991, according to the U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a project by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). Among U.S. adolescents aged 13 to 17, use of marijuana tripled from 1991 to 2001. Because of its illegality, the ONDCP reports use by age and year since 1991 to track trends in use. The ONDCP's latest report (2006) included data on marijuana use from 13 to 17-year-olds.
Marijuana use may cause a wide spectrum of problems similar to withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, and restlessness. These problems may persist for 24 hours or longer after marijuana use, suggesting a chronic effect of cannabis use. Withdrawal may also be a potential cause for many of the side effects related to marijuana use.
Marijuana use seems to be dependent upon an individual's predisposition which is strongly influenced by the biological processes that occur in the brain, including genetics and environmental factors such as the quality of the mother's diet and other family factors.
Overall around 42.3 million yearly marijuana users (approximately 1 in 20 men in the United States) can be estimated. In addition about 11 million casual users, and an additional 18 million regular MMJ users (3/10s of the total, or around 1 in 25 men per year) can be estimated. There are some potential for significant improvements if all marijuana users (both recreational and medical uses) were able to participate in screening.
Marijuana use does not seem to be a cause of relapse for many smokers. However, it might be associated with less favorable outcomes for a subgroup of smokers with cannabis dependence.
Marijuana can significantly improve life quality. Many of the common treatments used for ADHD and depression effectively treat marijuana use. Thus, treatment modalities must be broadly applicable to the treatment of marijuana use, including the use of psychostimulant agonists, serotonin-enhancing agonists, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and dopamine agonists to suppress or treat the reinforcing and pleasurable effects of marijuana use.
Although these findings are preliminary, in addition to the previously published results, they suggest that marijuana use would not seem to be dangerous, and its use for the treatment of pain may be beneficial.
Eccentric biceps flexion is a very effective technique for the treatment of elbow instability. There are only a few limitations. First, the tendon fibers are located at their furthest point from the joint during an eccentric contraction. So eccentric work can only stretch the tendon maximally to a certain degree. Second, a high contraction velocity and high level eccentric work are necessary to maintain the tendon lengthening. This is because eccentric work is not strong enough to stretch the tendon further, so the tendon fibers get closer to the joint. Third, it is difficult to reproduce concentric work postoperatively owing to an increase in pain over the first few weeks. The eccentric work is more difficult to perform immediately after surgery due to the pain.
Recent findings does not provide conclusive evidence that familial use of marijuana is a risk factor for developing HCC, but the majority of cases could not be partitioned with an acceptable level of confidence into familial and sporadic HCC, because of the relatively short duration of the index case and the young age of cases. Recent findings are compatible with the possibility that familial and sporadic HCC may share common environmental exposures.
Eccentric biceps flexion is typically utilized in conjunction with a number of other methods to correct an eccentric defect of the shoulder including the shoulder abduction. However, it appears to be often combined with no other intervention.
Eccentric biceps flexion may be helpful for several tendon injuries, including shoulder impingement, rotator cuff tears, and tendon entrapments. Patients should follow the standard precautions for rehabilitating an eccentric muscle contraction, and an eccentric contraction should be avoided if symptoms persist more than 2 months. The degree to which biceps contraction is eccentric should relate to the severity as well as the duration of symptoms.
Although it has a well-recognized usefulness, there are also risks associated with eccentric biceps flexion. A prospective study examining these risks is needed to aid in clinical evaluation of their applicability.