Recent findings demonstrates that there is no link between cognitive and brain age, but that cognitive aging correlates with a variety of biomarkers that are related to the burden of Alzheimer-type plaques. Recent findings are consistent with the suggestion that changes as a result of aging are multifactorial, involving not only brain disease, but also metabolic-behavioral-cerebral dysfunction, and neural-inflammatory-immune dysfunction in specific regions.
The hallmark of Alzheimer's disease was not observed in our population-based sample. In participants aged 85 or older with cognitive impairment, however, most would not be able to identify any signs of cognitive deterioration.
When the prevalence of cognitive impairment is taken into account, there seems to be no consistent relationship between demographic and clinical features of elderly subjects and cognitive performance.
Cognitive aging has no cure and should not be cured. People with cognitive aging have the potential to live a long and productive life if they seek proper treatment.
The number of new cases of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia should increase to at least 5.7 million a year by the year 2020, and this number will likely continue to rise by the year 2030.
Cognitive deterioration is an important concern especially for people in the middle years of life. There is no cure for cognitive aging but several common treatments can minimize the effects of cognitive aging. Aging does not necessarily reduce the ability to perform a task; rather, it can decrease the ability to process information. There are numerous approaches to cognitive aging, but they can be categorized into three types: rehabilitation, prevention, and treatment. All of these approaches have the potential to improve the quality of life for the elderly.
One out of three participants showed improvement in the cognitive performance in domains of executive function and episodic memory in this study, with positive effects lasting for a total average of 4 months.
Previous research is inconclusive as to whether the primary cause of cognitive aging is accelerated aging or age-related processes. Data from a recent study does not provide enough data to suggest one causal hypothesis over another. Theories about the causal mechanisms of cognitive aging in the light of the accumulating data and previous research proposals are proposed accordingly.
In a population with a high proportion of elderly individuals, the mean age to be considered "cognitively aged" is very close to 70 to 76 years.
The intensity of exercise, the duration of exercise bouts, and the total exercise time expended by home-based patients were not optimal. The low exercise intensity may be due to the fact that a large number of patients walked at an exercise intensity that was too low for the desired duration. The duration of exercise bouts was too short according to the duration of their physical health benefits and exercise training needs. Therefore, additional exercise training with moderate-to-high intensity, more than 15 minutes per day, to increase exercise intensity, time, and duration would be beneficial to home-based patients to achieve desired health effects. In particular, more exercise time/duration may be necessary, as patients do not always engage in physical health exercises for adequate time.
Contrary to expectations, the home-based exercise programme was not more effective than a placebo in preventing cognitive decline or its biomarkers in older adults in a two-year prospective cohort study. The inclusion of older adults in such programmes should aim at enhancing compliance to exercise.