For hyperpigmentation, some common treatments include azelaic acid and coal tar extract. More aggressive treatments like retinoid and photodynamic therapy may require multiple sessions to achieve maximal results. The choice of treatment for hyperpigmentation is contingent on several factors, such as the patient's skin color, underlying conditions, and personal preference.
Around 25% of adults of both genders have a lightening of their skin pigmentation. The prevalence of light skin pigmentation is less frequent among women than among men, and is much lower near the equator than in the Southern and Northern U.S.
Hyperpigmentation is due to an increased amount of melanin. Because increased melanin serves an important anti-oxidant function, hyperpigmentation has been shown to protect against oxidative stress in skin cells and to promote wound healing.\n
Hyperpigmentation is a widespread and very common lightening of the skin that is caused by an increase in melanin production. It can be considered a normal response to sunlight exposure and is a symptom of vitiligo and lichen planus. The best known and most extreme variant is melasma.
Hyperpigmentation can be treated with various medical interventions. Hyperpigmentation in the periorbital and extremities can be treated with topical agents such as hydroquinone, hydroquinone/clindamycin, and cryosurgery and with systemic treatments. Topical peels, lasers, chemical peels, and trichloroacetic acid are often used for the treatment of hyperpigmentation around the mouth or in the nail beds. Systemic treatments may involve the use of photodynamic treatment or PUVA.
Hyperpigmentation is a marker of hyperactive melanocyte dysfunction. Dysfunction at any time between the initial melanin production by melanocytes and its maturation resulting in melanin production by melanocytes and subsequent extrusion. Hyperpigmentation may also occur as a result of skin trauma (e.g., from UV radiation and UV exposure of the skin) or as a result of light-induced damage to the skin. These factors may occur in some hereditary conditions that are characterized by hyperactive melanocyte function.
There have been no other clinical trials concerning trifarotene. (This cream has only been tested in the short term, and its efficacy or safety could be questioned. In a larger study, it may not have been clear whether the results were good or bad. There is some concern that certain treatments can affect trifarotene's effectiveness, and there is a need to find effective treatments to use instead.
Trifarotene cream applied once weekly is effective in the treatment of actinic prurigo, solar keratosis, and solar elastosis because of its efficacy in reducing visible hyperpigmentation and alleviating the itching. In addition, the use of trifarotene is associated with very few side effects, which can be managed by simple measures.
Hyperpigmentation tends to be more prevalent in women in their late teens and twenties. The most common types of pigmented lesions are those of the skin, hair, and nails. Older age, a family history of hyperpigmentation, and a history of sun exposure are associated with hyperpigmentation.
Hyperpigmentation, especially if it is cosmetically challenging, can cause disabling anxiety to patients if its consequences are unknown to them. Physicians should consider the consequences if patients are unwilling to take action.
Results from a recent paper confirms that trifarotene cream is a safe option for the treatment of facial hypertrophy in adults. In addition, patients treated with trifarotene cream and sunlight therapy had improvements in their quality of life similar to those patients treated with trifarotene cream alone.
Topically applied trifarotene cream provides a more durable and persistent improvement in photodamage, freckles, fine lines, rough skin, and pigmentation than UVB radiation, regardless of phototype. Moreover, trifarotene cream does not produce any significant decrease in the rate of skin cancer or increase in ultraviolet sun exposure.