Drug misuse is not a disease of the person: it is an act of a society with a long history of prohibition and sanctions against drug use and production, and consequent breakdown of civil order and social stability. Current drug policies in the UK and the EU have effectively created a climate of drug use which is conducive to the continued existence of drug misuse. The challenge is to change policies on drug prohibition and the imposition of sanctions on anyone suspected of drug use. In addition, an explanation of the history and the continuing political and medical legitimacy of drug offences should be made available to all drug users to dispel common misconceptions.
This overview includes a number of treatments which are widely used to treat drug dependency and drug abuse. Specific clinical scenarios are also analyzed. In summary, the treatment approach is primarily aimed at pharmacological or behavioural means (e.g. withdrawal, maintenance), or both of these modalities. It is noted that many options may not be equally effective or safe across various patient populations. The treatment of drug abuse and addiction is highly dependent upon the individual and the context in which an individual is in. The treatment of drug abuse and addiction is aimed at treating the underlying problems which caused the drug abuse or usage.
Drug abuse is defined as any activity involving the use of drugs by individuals other than a professional medical doctor. One of the reasons people drink alcohol is to get high. However, the misuse of alcohol can turn into a risky, destructive and destructive behavior. Many more people abuse drugs which lead to the deaths of millions worldwide especially, African youth. The effects of the drugs can be grouped into physical, social and mental effects. These have both positive and negative values to individuals but they all are worth studying as it is our turn to protect our societies and countries against all of the problems, harms that come with drug abuse.
Signs of drug abuse are physical alterations and psychological or personality changes. In a medical setting, the physical signs of an acute overdose or intoxication can be ascertained with relatively little time and with minimal expense. When a practitioner suspects a drug overdose or intoxication, it is most often due to drug seeking behaviour or substance abuse. This is not an emergency.
Around 13.2% of pregnant, non-pregnant women and men use illicit drugs at any given point in time, with 9.5% taking any drug within the last month of pregnancy. Alcohol and tobacco are used by 20% of mothers of adolescents with alcohol or drug use. In women, marijuana and prescription opioids and benzodiazepines are prevalent drugs used by approximately 11% of pregnant women. Alcohol and cannabis use during pregnancy is associated with increased rates of prenatal withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and insomnia. In men, cocaine, amphetamines, alcohol, cannabis, and narcotics are prevalent drugs of abuse. Alcohol and cannabis use during pregnancy is associated with higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
Drug abuse, particularly substance abuse, is probably not an incurable illness. However, when used inappropriately, drug abuse can have severe adverse consequences. Drug abuse and/or dependence may be treated to treat the underlying disorder, but not with the intent of cure. In any case, to remain healthy it is critical to keep drug abuse under control.
PEMI is a promising new intervention with potential to substantially improve treatment adherence. PEMI interventions should be carefully planned and standardized to minimize the risk of adverse effects to patients. There was no adverse effect of PEMI compared with placebo, but study limitations preclude conclusions about the safety or effectiveness of PEMI.
We have not found any peer-enhanced MI-based studies that used a structured instrument prior to the interview to guide the patients' behaviors. However, future studies that use standardized instruments to guide peer enhancement may be helpful in determining whether peer coaching may improve behavioral change and improve long-term outcomes in patients receiving psychosocial treatment for alcohol dependence.
PE-MI does not produce statistically significantly different results compared to the placebo condition. Nevertheless, as PE-MI shows a large and significant effect in terms of enhancing intervention uptake and improving motivation for change, future studies should further investigate the implications of PE-MI in terms of reducing HIV-associated stigma.
Drug abuse seems to run in families. Recent findings suggests that parents and siblings may be more likely to make attempts at treatment than other relatives.
It seems that drug addiction causes many problems. The effects of abuse on the body are profound and can have serious implications for life and health of the addict.
Individuals, families, and clinicians may benefit tremendously from participation in clinical trials. Individuals, especially those who have already begun treatment for drug addiction, may be more open to participating in trials. Clinicians may be more confident that patients perceive and accept clinical trials and may better advocate for patients, and family members and loved ones on patients' behalf.