Cancer of the uterus, also known as [endometrial cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/endometrial-cancer), is a serious cancer where it can spread to other parts of the body. Uterine cancer develops more frequently amongst Middle-aged to elderly women. There are many reasons for considering chemotherapy as a treatment option and further investigation is required to confirm the significance of each one.
Cancer of uterus should not be treated with this treatment modality, unless a cancer of uterus is present with the primary intent of preventing spread.
Results from a recent paper defines the number of women diagnosed with uterine cancer in the United States. The rate of uterine cancer diagnosis in females has remained stable between 1995 and 2003. The lifetime risk of uterine cancer in most US women is approximately 1 in 80 (0.12%).
Signs of cancerous change in the vagina include increased pap smear changes such as irregular cells and bleeding, abnormal cells on biopsy, uterine enlargement or a mass, or bleeding after a pregnancy in the past. The symptoms may arise at any age. Other symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding in a woman older than 40, vaginal bleeding during the menstrual cycle, abnormal vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, or painful sex.
About 30% of uterine cancers have an identifiable environmental cause, most of the remainder having no known cause. Smoking seems to be the most important environmental risk factor. Many early uterine tumors probably develop from normal lining tissue rather that from germ cell tumor. Many of the uterine cancers associated to cervical carcinoma and uterine papillary adenocarcinoma have a hereditary basis.
The most common treatment related toxicity was nausea and vomiting. Almost half of women experienced fatigue. Nausea and vomiting can happen because of various reasons, the most common are related to chemotherapy, target tissue dose and chemotherapy drug dose. Treatment related toxicity was more common in the higher doses groups which includes concurrent treatment with cytotoxic drugs and radiotherapy.
In the last year, advances in treatment of cancer of uterus have been slower than the advances of diagnostic techniques. The rate of newly licensed drugs has been relatively low compared with drug development by pharmaceutical companies. Also, the number of ongoing trials with novel medicines remains relatively low. Thus, progress in treatment of uterine cancer is slow compared with the progress in diagnostics and treatment of cancer of prostate or breast. With the increasing burden of uterine cancer patients with recurrent disease, however, the need for more effective treatments for uterine cancer is more urgent.
Recent findings has found that endometrial cancer patients are very interested in participation in clinical trials. While most patients prefer to be aware of their own prognosis, they agree that if a potential benefit may have a positive impact on quality of life, then patient participation is an ethical requirement.
According to this analysis of national data sets, there are about 1 million cases of uterine cancer per year in the United States, with about 13,900 deaths due to disease. The mean age at diagnosis of uterine cancer was 55 years in women under 65 and 59 years in those 65 and older. Among patients of all ages, the leading cause of death is cervical cancer, which occurs in women 65 and older. Over the past 3 decades, uterine cancers have become more aggressive and the average survival time of women having uterine cancer is estimated to be approximately 5 to 10 years when not treated for advanced disease. Recent findings suggest that screening for uterine cancer should, in part, be done among women 65 and older.
Results from a recent paper showed that QOL of women with cancer of uterus, who underwent radiotherapy for uterine cancer, improves significantly. Also, most domains of QOL (physical, emotional and spiritual) are improved by treatment. In this case treatment is recommended to patients even though it may have adverse effects on treatment. The domains of QOL were not improved by surgery since the disease had recurred so surgery is not a definitive therapeutic solution to cancer of uterine and so treatment with surgery has drawbacks to improve QOL.
The data shows that treatment is used in combination with other treatments with one-quarter of women receiving additional treatment, most of those receiving hormone therapy. There appears to be a need for better collaboration between clinicians, in terms of developing and sustaining practice guidelines.