The presentation might include many different signs, so the name'multiple sclerosis' could be applied to a variety of conditions. The signs and symptoms of MS might be similar to a variety of other diseases. Therefore, the general term "multiple sclerosis" is better understood as an umbrella term, which applies to a spectrum of conditions, rather than a specific disease. Also, not all conditions, in which signs and symptoms of MS are found, are the same as MS. Also, not all of the signs and conditions cause the same damage. Some damage is permanent, and tends not to be corrected. Such types of damage can be assessed with MRI and lesion detection.
The exact cause of MS remains unknown, but it is likely multifactorial, including environmental, genetic, and unknown exposures. This is in contrast to the general population, where risk factors are thought to be mainly environmental.
The most common manifestation of MS is a progressive disability (87.6% in this series) with some of the patients having a relapsing-remitting pattern of disability course (33.3%). Most patients have a good functional remission. The MS Disease Severity Scale is a simple instrument that permits identification of disability evolution in MS.
There is a lack of randomized trials on MS treatments and most treatment options are approved for chronic disease rather than for acute events (such as relapse) or for prevention of future relapse.
The current knowledge or use of any non-validated, unproven, unconventional or unsupported treatment methods is discouraged against conventional medical treatment. This is the first survey to our knowledge in the international literature related to the issue of the non-validated use of the most recent treatment of multiple sclerosis patients. Results from a recent clinical trial of this study, however, are reassuring and suggest that there is no reason to discourage the use of conventional medical treatment in this group of patients.
The number of people who will be diagnosed with MS and the number of people who live with MS will be increasing. A more thorough understanding of MS will help improve the health and quality of life for those living with it. A greater understanding of the effects of MS will also help improve the care of those affected and their primary care providers.
The use of acetazolamide in people with normal baseline renal function or no previous adverse reactions to the drug is safe. Further investigation is required before the long-term effects of acetazolamide on renal and neurological functions can be assessed.
Patients were more likely to receive gabapentin when combined with an agent commonly used in their treatment of MS, implying that this practice has potential for the development of drug co-therapy. When combined, gabapentin was less likely to be used relative to monotherapy, which is in contrast to the practice of combining the two in combination with other agents that are commonly used in MS treatment. This contrasts to the use of other agents commonly used in MS treatment.
Although families of relatives diagnosed with MS do show considerable variability in clinical phenotype, a large number of families of first-degree relatives (n=11) of new MS cases were found to share similar clinical phenotypes. Inherited MS appears to be a highly polygenic disease, in which most genetic determinants in the general population are not implicated.
It looks like all of the previous efforts have been directed back to understanding why the disease starts in the first place, and then addressing that problem. Researchers are searching for treatments for MS that work, and are looking for people who respond to these treatments. That's all we have to do to go from the lab to the pharmacy.
The current prevailing view that MS is a demyelinating disease, with a probable initiating inflammatory process, that causes axonal damage followed by demyelination. This view is unlikely to be superseded by the advances in molecular neuroimmunology, since axonal damage is not always apparent in early-stage MS and can occur even in progressive MS. The development of MS is likely to be heterogeneous, which would allow a more rational approach to the understanding of the mechanisms of disease.
Although most of the side effects recorded in the literature are uncommon, some must be noted, particularly when using ATC as monotherapy. The possible side effects of ATC do not appear to occur frequently during the first month of treatment or following its cessation. However, the drug has to be carefully prescribed to avoid a number of unpleasant rare side effects like liver toxicity.