Of all the risk factors studied, only current level of UV exposure predicts the chance of developing melanoma during a lifetime. People with higher levels of exposure to UVC, have a higher chance of contracting and being diagnosed with melanoma later in life.
Over time, there was a significant decrease in melanoma incidence regardless of race. There was an increase in melanoma incidence for those in the 70- to 74-year-old bracket. This may be because of increased sun exposure due to aging. The incidence was also significantly lower among African American women. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant variation by race for the incidence of lentigo maligna. There was a statistically significant increase in incidence for women with dark hair. Since skin cancer is caused by UV light and not by tanning, black women were at risk for a higher incidence of skin cancer, especially lentigo maligna.
Melanoma most commonly presents as an uninvolved skin lesion. The key factors in the diagnosis of melanoma are the presence of itch (due to inflammation) with a pigmented lesion. Thickening of the skin from an ulceration is also an indicator of melanoma. Melanoma is more common in women of color.\n
Melanoma can be cured. However, early detection methods and improved treatments are needed to prevent progression and spread to other parts of the body. Treatment will be tailored for the patient or the family in this chaotic disease.
Melanoma accounts for less than one percent of skin cancer cases in the US every year. The average age at diagnosis of persons with melanoma is 59 years. Nearly half of the cases occur in women. These statistics may reflect the fact that melanoma is diagnosed later in women than in men. We could not determine the cause of this finding with the current dataset.
It is clear that both UV radiation and chemical exposure have long-term adverse effects on human melanoma. The UV-induced malignancies are now well-characterized and understood. However, it is still not fully understood what initiates the development of UV-induced tumors in a healthy individual. Although human melanomas can appear to occur spontaneously in a number of organs, melanomas do not arise in individuals without light exposure or other risk factors. It is likely that the development of UV-induced neoplasms is dependent on an interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors, such as UV radiation.
There are no cures for melanoma. However, the treatment of melanoma is improving and continues to improve because many new therapeutic options are being developed that will hopefully improve the cancer's survival rates. Although there are many known and unknown factors associated with cancer treatment, all treatments that can be done to improve the life expectancy of patients with melanoma can be done. There are four main stages in the progression of melanoma. First and second stages are considered to be the initial stages, and then the third stage is known as the metastatic stage. Finally, the fourth stage is the stage where the cancer has become a deadly disease.
While the SLNB and wide excision have advantages and disadvantages in its application, the SLNB can be a feasible treatment for melanoma and is an effective method for staging to reduce the number of lymph nodes involved in cancer metastasis.
In melanoma patients, there were significant improvements in health-related quality of life, depression, and itch following wide excision and SLN biopsy. Both treatments appear to have long-term health benefits, with a tendency toward improving itch and depression when compared with surgery alone. Both treatments are important, but both produce significant side effects.
SLN biopsy is highly accurate and safe for people. A wide excision alone will result in a similar recurrence rate irrespective of lymph node involvement and should be used as a first line treatment, rather than SLNB. A combination of wide excision and SLNB is a valuable option for patients who are at high risk of lymph node positivity or who have failed other therapies but want to preserve their limbs.
Wide excision and SLNB are effective in the treatment of early stage, surgically excitable MMs. Tumor ingrowth within the surgical excision margin may occur in nearly one in three patients and should be considered when the operation is indicated. This type of recurrence may represent a viable indication for adjuvant radiotherapy.
SLNB is highly significant in Stage pT0 node-positive patients in early melanoma. This procedure is extremely effective in eradicating the tumor. Because there are only 2 possible sites, local, for local excision, SLNB yields more favorable locoregional results than SLNB as well as a significantly decreased rate of local recurrence. Based on these data, SLNB should undoubtedly be used not only in Stage pT0 and pT1 patients but also in high-risk patients such as high-risk histology patients (e.g.