Lymphoma is often treated with curative intent with chemotherapy. Radiation therapy has become less common in the last decade, and the majority of patients with Stage 2 and Stage 3 disease now receive chemotherapy solely. Lymphoma is rare, with an overall rate of less than 1 per 1,500 persons per year. These data are similar to those of cancer as a whole.
Can lymphoma be cured? The treatment options and prognosis are highly influenced by stage and age. Survival is strongly influenced by comorbid disorders as well as stage. Treatment options have improved significantly over the last decade. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the mainstay of the treatment options, which are well tolerable. For people with Stage IV lymphoma, the prognosis is generally poor, resulting in a median 5-year survival rate of 17% and a mean 5 year survival rate of 23%. This low survival can be improved by optimizing the treatment modalities over and above the more traditional treatment options.
Signs that could signify a diagnosis of lymphoma include recent onset of enlarged lymph nodes, high levels of abnormal white blood cells, and pain in and around the lymph nodes. Abnormalities on a complete blood count (C&S) may indicate the possibility of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Abnormalities on an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) may also indicate a possibility of lymphoma. Other types of lymphomas have similar signs and symptoms. This article presents a more detailed overview of specific diagnoses than those listed herein.
Lymphomas are a group of cancers that derive from cells of the lymphoid lineages (lymphocytes, granulocytes, and B cells). They are characterized by the inability to fight infection and cancer prevention. Tumors from multiple lymphoid lines comprise approximately 70% of NHLs. Lymphomas may be primary, i.e., arising from blood cells and originating in the tissue, or secondary cancers, i.e., arising from neoplasms such as a leukaemia (a cancer of the blood).
Lymphoma is the third most common cancer overall among people 18–64 years (about 250,000 persons every year) in the United States. Its incidence in men is about 2.3 times higher than that in women; among people over 65, it is a little less common. These data, when combined, mean that in the United States about 4 percent of all people suffer from lymphoma yearly.
Patients with CD30+ Hodgkin's lymphoma have received and responded well to treatment with the monoclonal antibody monoclonal to CD30. However, the therapeutic effect of this antibody in relapsing CD30- lymphoma, in which CD30 is undetectable, appears to be variable with the results of previous clinical trials having been varied; as of 2006, however, there remains no evidence that the addition of monoclonal antibodies to a standard of care regimen for relapsing patients with indolent mycosis fungoides effectively alters disease course or alters relapsing/refractory disease.
This drug has been tested in a single phase III study and the most common side effects detected during this study were headache (10%), nausea (5%), fatigue (6%), itchiness (6%), constipation (2%) and abdominal pain (2%). Other side effects observed in the general population include dizziness, heart palpitations and increased urination. In clinical trials the most common side effects detected were headache (10%), fatigue (8%), nausea (7%), constipation (5%), itchiness (5%) abdominal pain (3%), back pain (2%), urinary irritation (2%) and insomnia (2%).
Patients with lymphoma demonstrate genetic heterogeneity in their malignant cells. There is limited concordance of clinical features between familial and sporadic cases, but some evidence for familial risk factors. There is no evidence that the familial clustering is of recent descent; therefore, it is likely that the observed clustering is due to genetic factors and not related to disease-related risk or to environmental factors.
The current data show that the overall chance of the development of lymphoma can be estimated by a Poisson distribution. Therefore, the risk of developing lymphoma does not differ significantly if a person lives longer or shorter.
Lymphoma spreads to the nodes, bone marrow, liver, lungs, spleen, brain, spinal cord, or kidney. Spread may be measured by CT scan, PET, or MRI. Lymphoma spreads slowly, even in stage I disease, but may not be diagnosed until extensive spread occurs in stage II disease. Lymphoma tends to be diagnosed later than it actually occurred because it is very often asymptomatic. There is more dissemination in stage IV than in any other tumor sub-system. Spread rate in stage IV disease cannot be determined, as it is often too far developed for the diagnosis to be definitively made. In patients over 80, dissemination is more rapid and may have a rapid effect on survival.
This information can be useful in estimating the life expectancy among lymphoma patients. It can help calculate the average number of cases per year per 100,000 in a large population. In other words, this information is useful in getting to understand, and eventually treat, the disease more efficiently.