Liver transplantation could prolong the survival time of HCC patients who had received preoperative treatment with TACE. If the patient had residual disease after liver transplantation, further treatments might not be effective in improving service survival; thus, the postoperative adjuvant therapy might fail and have adverse effects, which would reduce the chance of survival.
There were several types of human liver cancers whose prognosis and treatment had not been improved since the 1980s. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge on the carcinomas of the liver.
The average age of first diagnosis for HCC was 74 years in men and 77 years in women, compared to 69 years in men and 67 years in women for CCA. The incidence rates of HCC were 2-fold higher than that for CCA in both sexes, but the prevalence rate was slightly higher than that for CCA in both sexes (3.3 times higher in men vs 3.1 times higher in women). The male/female ratio of incidence and prevalence were similar to those observed for CCA, but the male/female ratios were 7.0 and 8.3 times higher for HCC in men and women, respectively.
Cabozantinib is frequently combined with other anticancer agents including EGFR-TKI, GEMCITIB, PARP inhibitors, and BSH_RAS inhibition. Results from a recent paper highlights the need for effective therapeutic regimens that incorporate cabozantinib, which will likely become more available over time.
The treatment choices vary considerably between geographic regions and even among individuals. Given the enormous cost burden associated with cancer, there still remains an important role for innovative therapies that are not yet on the market, especially in areas where healthcare resources are scarce.
Cabozantinib was superior to placebo in terms of efficacy. Although numerically superior, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. This suggests that activities of c-Met may be involved in resistance to cabozantinib therapy.
Cabozantinib was well tolerated In a recent study population and induced many common adverse events including nausea, fatigue, cough, dizziness, and hypotension. Cabozantinib did not appear to impair liver function tests. Because of its potent anticancer activity, further investigation of cabozantinib as a unique therapy for NSCLC is warranted.
Cabozantinib was well tolerated when administered as part of chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in combination with sorafenib. Recent findings of this study warrant further investigation of the safety and efficacy of cabozantinib as a monotherapy in HCC.
The survival rate for hepatocellular carcinomas is lower than that for other types of malignant neoplasms. However, the survival rates for HCC do not seem to differ significantly from those of other major malignancies in Japan.
The most frequent primary tumor was HCC (65.9%), followed by CPKD (12.3%) and CCC (10.7%). Until then, the primary tumors of HCC were thought to have been caused by HBV. Results from a recent paper showed that there was no relationship between HCC and HBV infection. Moreover, we found that more than half the primary tumors of HCC were not associated with hepatitis B virus infection. Therefore, other hepatotropic viruses such as HCV and HDV might also be involved in the development of HCC.
Cabozantinib has been used for the treatment of RAS wild-type metastatic renal cell carcinoma since 2009. In 2010, the FDA approved cabozantinib as a second line therapy for metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma. Subsequently, in 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Oridis Pharma's application for the approval of cabozantinib as a first-line therapy for metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. In March 2013, Oridis Pharma announced the receipt of exclusivity from the FDA for cabozantinib for the treatment of metastatic medullary thyroid cancer.