The main purpose of mastectomy is to eliminate the cause of [breast cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/breast-cancer). The most effective prevention options are still unavailable, especially early detection (e.g. mammography and more frequent breast self-examinations), and smoking cessation. If breast cancer is diagnosed early enough, good treatments are available to greatly reduce cancer progression, though not cure. However, more research to find the most effective ways to achieve mammography and smoking cessation and the most effective treatments for breast cancer is necessary.
For most women, breast self-examination (BSE) and receipt of a mammogram before the age of 50 remain the best preventive measures for breast cancer. It is important to emphasize that BSE is not a complete solution and should only be employed as a strategy to reduce breast cancer risk, and not be a substitute for more aggressive screening. The effectiveness of screening other family members is unclear.
It is estimated that around 2.5 million women would have had [breast cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/breast-cancer) in the United States in 1999 if the age-adjusted cancer incidence rates observed in these age groups in 1999 had been the same in 1999 as in 1999 in 1997. It would be expected that the age-adjusted breast cancer rates would have fallen between 1997 and 1999 by the same proportion as the age-adjusted colorectal cancer rates have fallen between 1997 and 1999, but the current rate has remained constant, suggesting that the rates of breast cancer are increasing, possibly because of increased numbers of diagnosed cases, or increased life expectancy, or both.
Breast cancer is the most common cause of a woman to be diagnosed with cancer and the incidence of breast cancer is expected to increase. The National Centre for Disease Control identifies breast cancer as the top cause of death among women in the United States of America.
Women of Northern Europe and Western Europe are at lowest risk, and the highest observed risk occurs in South Asians. Low mammographic densities cause higher rates of breast cancer in the developed world. The major risk factors are family history and female sex.
Signs of [breast cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/breast-cancer) are often of a sudden onset. Signs include pain, hard or lumpy feelings in the breast or changes in the shape and position of the breast. Fever, general malaise or weight loss may occur. If lumpiness, redness or a painful feeling is only experienced after the breast exam is complete, further test should be undertaken. Breast pain may also develop in the course of the disease. Symptoms are often preceded by a feeling of a lump in the breast or in a part of the body.
In this preliminary study, a low incidence of side effects as nausea, vomiting and fatigue, together with good tolerability, was observed. However, a larger cohort of patients to confirm these findings should be developed.
Even for early Stage I breast cancer, the chance of a recurrence persists for at least 24 months. However, the 5-year survival rate remains high, with a value ranging between 59.6% and 77.4% depending on the method of analysis of the prognosis in the early stage. For the advanced stages, it is in spite of any treatment, the 5- year survival rate decreases over the years to about 20%; 5 years survival exceeds 15% for patients who received all adjuvant therapies but remains low for metastatic patients or those treated surgically after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
At the dose of 12.5 mg/day there was no relevant safety adverse event. Therefore, patients should be treated as per their safety in phase III clinical trials.
In a recent study, findings suggest a substantial QoL benefit, in terms of better appetite, insomnia, and other symptoms of fatigue, in women treated with alisertib 40 mg/ daily.
The most common adverse events with both doses and alisertib were fatigue and abdominal pain, which may have been an off-target effect of alisertib. Compared with other drugs used in breast cancer, alisertib has a unique benefit of increasing the percentage of tumor shrinkage. Recent findings of this randomized Phase II study suggest that alisertib is a promising therapy for treatment of breast cancer.
The most common side effects of alisertib were fatigue (75 %), nausea (70 %) and constipation (45 %). More than half of the patients (51 %) experienced an objective response to alisertib as evidenced by a decrease in tumor burden and grade of the tumor. Fatigue and nausea were found to be the most common reasons for termination of treatment (54 % and 43 % respectively).