The most frequently described cause of multiple myeloma is an uncontrolled production of a monoclonal protein. In the past, it has also often been associated with exposure to ionizing radiation; the mechanisms of causation for ionizing radiation-induced multiple myeloma have not been well understood at present and are currently under intense investigation.
This report presents the first use of allogeneic blood stem cell [transplant](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/transplant)s to successfully treat a patient with advanced multiple myeloma. Our case illustrates the need for a more intense research effort, including improvements in the management of this rare condition and a better understanding of its biology and pathophysiology.
Approximately 9,600 people are diagnosed with MM a year in the United States. This is one of the highest rates among the developed (or industrialized) nations, although multiple studies have shown that MM is more common in other parts of the world. The high prevalence and incidence of MM in the United States may indicate its occurrence is related to a higher number of environmental exposures.
Signs and symptoms that may lead to the discovery of multiple myeloma include: increased unexplained blood loss, unusual and persistent blood in the urine with no demonstrable organic cause, bone tenderness or pain, and pathologic fractures.\n
The diagnosis of MM is based on the presence of myeloma protein in the blood and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Patients with the disorder often have low levels of Vitamin B12 or may not respond to B-synthetase inhibitors. Physicians can treat patients with MM by administering autologous stem cell transplantation.
The development of treatment regimens with a new generation of medications and biologic agents has dramatically improved the OS of multiple myeloma patients, but unfortunately the median OS of multiple myeloma is much poorer than the median survival of patients with multiple myeloma who did not receive treatment.
Patients with multiple myeloma-related myelodysplasia might benefit from autologous hematopoietic stem cell [transplant](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/transplant)ation: they may have better posttransplant and prognostic outcomes, including higher relapse-free survival and overall survival rate. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be considered in refractory patients with multiple myeloma-related myelodysplasia.
Most myeloma cases appear to occur after a person has a weak or absent immune system. Because people with many types of cancer have weak or absent immune systems and also often have a weak or absent immune system, it is not quite clear how multiple myeloma develops or who is at greatest risk of developing it. It is possible that multiple myeloma is influenced by mutations in our genomes to be more likely to occur in people whose immune systems are at a greater risk of developing multiple myeloma.
Many of these trials involved myelodysplastic syndromes but only few studies investigated the effects of autologous stem cell transplantation on the treatment of myeloma. This case report shows the potential benefits of this new technique which seems promising for future research and treatment of MM.
The majority of [research-eligible] MM patients support [a clinical trial] by an appropriate decision (about treatment and prognosis) when they receive the results. [For patients who may benefit, however, a clinical trial may not be an appropriate choice at this time.
Due to the very high and increasing incidence of multiple myeloma, and to other life-threatening illnesses, the public is increasingly aware of the risks of treatment. In this article, information on the seriousness of the disease can be found and assessed.
Although the treatment effects and survival were comparable to those of placebo, autologous HSC transplantation was better than a placebo-only group. In a recent study, findings support the feasibility of autobahological HSC transplantation to treat MM, and the importance of developing new therapeutic modalities.