Side effects of dexamethasone were more common than previously reported, with no clinically important consequences. Side effects were more common than in clinical trials. No dose escalation was associated with an increased likelihood of adverse effects. Patient counselling may be advisable.
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), also known as ‘respiratory failure’, ‘hyperinflation’ or ‘respiratory failure’, is a breathing disorder which occurs as a result of various types of injury that can damage the lung, such as a lung lesion, or irritation of the bronchi or lungs from other causes. The term is also commonly used to denote lung over ventilation. (...) RDS is a respiratory emergency. It is also called the distress signal that is heard when people in distress are unable to breathe.\n
The use of neuromuscular blockade in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome remains controversial. The usefulness of corticosteroids in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome remains unclear. Ventilatory support such as continuous positive airway pressure, intermittent positive pressure, and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation may improve the outcome of pulmonary hypoplasia in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome.
Each year, 607,000 to 739,000 children and adults develop respiratory distress syndrome in the US, a value that is highly dependent on age, state, race, and medical insurance status.
Signs of respiratory distress syndrome include tachypnea (rapid breathing), tachypnoia (inadequate breathing) and cyanosis, particularly of the face, lips, mouth and extremities. Tachypnea is an early sign, and a rapid rate of breathing can be an indication of respiratory distress syndrome. If tachypnoia is not present at a given time, but becomes evident within 24 hours of onset of symptoms, the diagnosis is likely to be made. In many cases, this indicates the need for hospitalization, as is also true of cyanosis, which has to be looked for and monitored over 12 hours with periodic arterial blood gas analysis.
Data from a recent study from the randomized controlled trials should encourage health authorities to intensify the research in this area for improving outcome. Further improvement of respiratory distress syndrome prevention and treatment is still indispensable to decrease the prevalence of this disease in the future.
This multidisciplinary study identified a number of previously unrecognised causes in association with RDS. Further work is required to determine whether these have a detrimental, beneficial or no effect on outcomes.
We found a number of small clinical trials in which most patients received either no treatment or had their own treatment. This is important as many of these small trials provided data on which to base future trials of medical treatments. These studies have led to the development of a new treatment programme for the disorder based on a pilot trial. It is also worthwhile obtaining information on the success of these treatment programmes. This was done using the power method. We were, however, unable to obtain reliable information for several of the conditions studied.
Respiratory distress syndrome occurs mostly early in life and seldom occurs after 40 years of age. Age should generally be considered when making decisions about whether or not to administer mechanical ventilation for a patient with respiratory distress syndrome.
Although more than half of reported cases of pediatric intensive care unit pneumonia that are treated with antibiotics do not respond to the antibiotic regimen, these cases are usually still cured. A combination of a macrolide and beta-lactam appears to be effective in pediatric ICU-acquired pneumonia. A high incidence of treatment failures reported in studies of resistant or refractory clinical pneumonia requires new approaches to the assessment and treatment of these patients.
Based on past studies, the combination of steroids with antibiotics is considered effective at treating severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is limited information on the use of antibiotics alone or with steroids in ARDS.
Although the medical professionals are willing, knowledgeable about, and trained in treating neonates, unfortunately, for most of these ill infants/newborns the medical care is just too inadequate to keep us progressing and keep our patients alive, making us look on for a way to improve PNC services in this country.