Abemaciclib improves QoL in women with adenocarcinoma. Given the limited time spent on therapy, the QoL may prove to be a more realistic outcome measure for evaluating novel therapeutic agents.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved abemaciclib for treating metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on 27 April 2018. On 17 January 2019, the FDA approved the combination abemaciclib + pegylated liposomal irinotecan (MLN-190:trade name Lomiplatin) for treating metastatic NSCLC.
Among patients with adenocarcinoma, there are few clinical signs that distinguish the subtype. The most reliable clinical sign is synchronous or metachronous bone metastases—a finding that is characteristic for patients with colon adenocarcinomas.
Around 70-80% of lung cancers originate from adenocarcinoma. The lifetime risk for a new case of adenocarcinoma is 3.7%. The incidence of adenocarcinoma has been increasing since the mid-1990s.
Adenocarcinoma is an aggressive tumor that typically occurs in younger adults during their reproductive years where they are most exposed to carcinogens and tobacco smoke. It is a major cause of cancer related deaths and has an estimated 5-year survival rate of 28-36%. This data suggests that a strong warning needs to be given to the public particularly to young adults (i.e. smokers).
Adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus, bronchi or prostate has a very favourable prognosis when detected early and treated aggressively. However, the disease appears to be fatal within three years if detected only early and treated with curative intent, irrespective of location. However, because early presentation of adenocarcinoma is difficult to detect, its cure is hard to accomplish. Patients suffering from localised adenocarcinoma should usually be offered curative treatment irrespective of stage and location. In view of the prognosis of adenocarcinoma, radical surgery remains the gold standard.
Common treatments for adenocarcinoma, which may lead to either local relapse or distant metastases, include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these. Chemotherapy generally involves systemic chemotherapy given to the entire body, and is the only common therapy to address occult metastases. Radiation therapy given to local and regional metastases is generally given in small fractions that may be given over multiple visits. Treatment for advanced adenocarcinoma has improved thanks to the development and implementation of novel treatments. Because aggressive treatment, with concurrent chemoradiation is the treatment of last resort, patients with advanced adenocarcinoma should benefit from careful investigation and evaluation before treatment.
Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is much less common than previously reported because it is often overlooked. Since it is the most common form of pancreatic cancer, it is more of an incidental finding than a disease of the pancreas; therefore, adenocarcinoma, although rare, is the most common form of pancreas cancer.
The common side effects of abemaciclib were fatigue, nausea, headache, diarrhea, and rash. Each affected a minimal number to patients, yet several were severe enough to result in abemaciclib withdrawal or abemaciclib discontinuation for a number of patients. Abemaciclib is a promising therapeutic option in the treatment of patients with ER+ breast cancer and HER2/neu-positive disease.
Clinical trials for adenocarcinoma may have a significant potential to increase quality of life for patients with advanced disease. However, to enhance the utility of clinical trials for adenocarcinoma, the patients must be evaluated prospectively to select those who are likely to benefit.
This medication is a reversible inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) CDK4/6. Abemaciclib is currently being tested in combination with either letrozole or fulvestrant in combination with letrozole (FIHA) or fulvestrant (Fulkerza) for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive metastatic uterine cancer of endometrial or ovarian type. Abemaciclib is a drug developed by Nippomed (a joint venture of Eli Lilly and Company and Medarex), and is not currently approved or marketed by any major pharmaceutical company.
Although adenocarcinoma accounts for 25-30% of all ovarian cancers, this research was scarce. This lack of research means that patients with adenocarcinoma have very few options for treatment and surveillance procedures. The best way to overcome these diagnostic issues and to help patients with adenocarcinoma live longer is to improve the research for this disease.