In carefully selected patients with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection after surgery but without respiratory distress, respiratory syncytial virus shedding is frequently and reproducibly suppressed.
Symptoms include a purulent cough in young children, persistent or worsening lower respiratory tract symptoms in older children. The most important symptom is decreased appetite. The diagnosis usually requires confirmation by an appropriate serologic test. RSV infection may also be detected serologically if the disease presents as a febrile illness with respiratory symptoms. Other signs include erythema nodosum and lymphadenopathy.
RSV is not the only cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children. The most accurate way to demonstrate an upper respiratory infection includes the presence of RSV, rhinovirus, influenza or adenovirus in a patient's upper airway samples. RSV is a common cause of bronchiolitis in pediatric health care facilities.
Each year over one million children in the United States are infected with RSV. More than 80% of cases occur during the first two years of life. Nearly half of these cases occur at less than one month of age. It remains to be seen whether this will be the result of increased risk due, in part, to recent vaccination programs or decreased natural immunity of the immunocompromised newborn infant. The increased risks may result in many more cases of RSV infection, not only in children, who have few natural immunity options, but in all infants (especially infants less than two years of age). Prevention of RSV infection in infancy is critical to prevention of disease later in life.
The respiratory manifestations of the viral infection are the most common, but they may vary according to the pathogenic viral strain. The most important symptom is a prodromal prodrome (symptoms prior to clinical manifestations), followed by upper airway involvement and the final respiratory involvement. Most frequently the upper airway manifestations are absent in infants. These viral infections may be more likely to be associated with a bronchial obstruction in infants and toddlers. The respiratory symptoms of RSV infections, especially in the first week of infection or in children younger than 24 months, is probably the most important clinical manifestation. RSV is a common infectious agent, but a possible pathogenic factor is the high variability of the viral strains.
There is currently no specific treatment for RSV infections. Current prevention options include immunization of the infant, avoiding close contact with infected persons and decreasing the chance of exposure to the virus through increased cleaning, disinfection and air purification. There is no vaccine for RSV, therefore prevention through these strategies is critical to controlling respiratory syncytial virus infections. A study shows that the number of cases of RSV is associated with increased visits to an emergency provider. It is advisable to be present in any children hospitalized with RSV-like illness, not to touch them and to report any respiratory infection to your pediatrician or hospital's infectious disease ward.
This article shows that in mice, RSV δns2 δ1313 i1314l vaccines, like the rM2 prophylactic strategy, elicits protection against lethal RSV challenge. Therefore, the rM2 δns2 δ1313 i1314l vaccine is an effective strategy for preventing lethal RSV challenge in naïve and previously infected, as well as immunocompromised murine hosts.
This is the most recent evidence and a review of the research on the effects of RSV infections in the lung. Researchers have made advances in understanding RSV infections and they are looking to understand how RSV is able to cause lung disease and how and why certain babies are more likely to be affected. There are potential new therapies, vaccines, and strategies for RSV-infected babies to reduce their symptoms and death. To help researchers discover more about RSV and the lung, you can search for recently published peer-reviewed papers at PUBMED. Furthermore, you can go to PubMed and search under [Respiratory Syncytial Virus] (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
This rSvo δns2 δ1313 i1314l vaccine may be efficacious against RSV-mediated airway disease in children, and may be evaluated as a potential treatment for children hospitalized with RSV-mediated LRTI.
Results from a recent clinical trial from this study provide further evidence that most patients with persistent pulmonary disease following RSV infection are being managed suboptimally. The major contributor to this discrepancy in management appears to be that many patients in this population have more severe disease or are receiving inappropriate management. Patients with persistent disease after RSV infection are at risk of persistent lung disease. These patients may be eligible for clinical trials investigating new therapies to reduce this burden.
The efficacy of the vaccine in preventing RSV disease during the first 4 years of life does not depend on the vaccine used or the concurrent administration of additional treatments. This is in good agreement with the results of previous randomized clinical trials as well as the results of our previous observational studies, since receipt of any treatment is associated both with higher risk of RSV disease and with more severe disease.