The most common and important side effects of MSCs are fever, hemorrhage, skin toxicity, and infection. Symptoms other than these three may vary depending on the source, condition, injection, and dosage.
Ileocolitis is often a diagnosis of exclusion. Patients with symptoms suggestive of IBD, such as diarrhea and/or fever with nausea and/or vomiting, usually have a positive colonoscopy and biopsy. It is important to consider other potential causes of symptoms, such as microscopic colitis. In patients with severe, refractory disease, a diagnosis of intestinal lymphoma may be considered. If the endoscopy shows ulcers in the cecum or ascending colon, intestinal biopsy may be necessary.
While a variety of factors can cause ileocolitis, medications can be a primary cause. Other factors may also play a role. More information about ileocolitis is needed to help manage the disease.
In a recent study, findings demonstrates that the symptoms of ileocolitis are not cured. In most patients treatment should be continued on an ongoing basis and that patients with ileocolitis and comorbidity should have prompt follow-up. In others, it is possible the patient with ileocolitis could potentially be successfully treated with a steroid-sparing immunomodulation therapy. Further research should determine if other immune system manipulations such as antiadhesion molecules, probiotics, or antifungals can improve symptom control in patients with ileocolitis.
The signs of ileocolitis are the same as those of IBD including altered stool frequency and consistency, blood in the toilet, abdominal pain and changes of the stool color. These observations are important for differential diagnosis in patients presenting with diarrhea or abdominal discomfort.
In the United States, from the years 1975-1999, the total incidence of UC is estimated to be 19.5-29.3 per 10,000 population. UC is more frequent in men (30.4 per 10,000 persons) than in women (17.0 per 10,000 persons). The number of patients with complicated UC is larger in patients with ileal than with colonic disease (37.9 per 10,000 for UC with colonic vs. 23.1 per 10,000 for UC with ileal or proctitis): patients with UC with ileal/proctitis have a 10-fold higher risk for complicated disease than UC with only colonic disease.
The most common treatment for ileocolitis is oral treatment and topical lubricants with analgesics, usually diclofenac. Steroids may be prescribed if there are severe symptoms. Antibiotics and antifungals are not usually used.\n
Ileocolitis has been used as a name for various forms of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, although there remains no evidence that they are distinct entities. If they are distinct, different types of ileocolitis or intestinal inflammation may be relevant. Some evidence supports the idea that bacterial triggers are involved in the development of chronic ileocolitis and the potential clinical utility of bacterial therapy.
[Primary ileocolitis is due to ileal and colorectal atrophy; secondary ileocolitis is due to colonic mucosal changes in patients with prior ileocolonic diseases.] This is the first report in the literature to describe the histopathological features of ileo-colitis. [A histopathopathological grading of ileocolitis can be used in clinical practice to diagnose the degree of ileal and colorectal atrophy and, consequently, the necessity to prescribe different drugs to correct it. If a patient needs surgical intervention for an ileo-colic disorder; the use of a strict grading scheme is very important.
Stem cells have the ability to integrate with other cell types and induce new tissues, as well as to promote endogenous repair of damaged tissue. Therefore, stem cells are the most exciting field for advances in stem cells for therapeutic use. Furthermore, the use of biocompatible materials is gaining interest and helps to create better implants without compromising the physical integrity.
There was no new drug in the treatment of ileocolitis. There was a case reported of a novel treatment of ileocolitis that is in the trial stage. There are some interesting findings in regards to the pathohistopathologic lesions seen in ileocolic disease.
The use of bone marrow MSCs in people with IBD has a narrow safety margin and, thus, should be considered with caution even if approved by a health authority.