A very clear-cut cure for hyperandrogenism cannot be achieved. However, in selected cases it is possible to reduce levels to below the level of masculinization. It is also possible to prevent other clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism without eliminating the increased sex hormone production.
We found that women diagnosed with hyperandrogenism presented with varied symptoms which may be more common in women with a higher BMI, overweight, or PCOS. Symptoms were more likely to develop when BMI > 25 or more and PCOS present and included menstrual irregularity, amenorrhea, and painful menstruation. The presence of other conditions, especially PCOS, has an effect on the severity of the symptoms.
Approximately 500,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with hyperandrogenism yearly. Hyperandrogenism is more common in women than men, with nearly 70% of the cases of hyperandrogenism reported in women.
This review identifies common, long-acting, low-dose medications such as androgens, progestogen, and long-acting estrogens as effective treatment for women with hirsutism and hyperandrogenism. It also points to the need for better standardizing hirsutism treatments and ensuring that women are informed of the common hirsutism treatments before undergoing treatment.
Hyperandrogenism is most likely due to the interplay of hormones at the pituitary-gonadal axis. This hypothesis needs to be tested in longitudinal studies. If substantiated, it may suggest that the development of polycystic ovary syndrome is initiated in utero.
Hyperandrogenism is a condition that occurs in females as well as males when testosterone and/or estrogen levels are above normal levels. Symptoms may include acne, hirsutism, weight gain, and an enlarged male pelvis called gynecomastia. Hyperandrogenism can occur with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a proportion of cases. It is often treated with estrogen therapy. The condition was formerly called "polycystic ovary syndrome". Hyperandrogenism can occur with hyperprolactinemia, polycystic ovary syndrome or in women taking the prescription hormone contraceptive pill.
Progestogen-deposition rates achieved with the three micronized doses were similar and were markedly higher than those achieved with other dosage forms. The most consistent dose resulting in maximal progestogen-deposition was 6.5 mg/day micronized.
Progesterone as given by subdermal suspension is generally well tolerated. The side effects were mostly mild and infrequent. The common side effects, however, were the same as for subdermal progesterone, and therefore can be expected to occur from a formulation of progesterone taken by subcutaneous injection, rather than from a particular subdermal suspension.
The progesterone micronized suspension is well tolerated and effective in the treatment of premenopausal women with hyperandrogenism. The safety of the micronized preparation must be confirmed against oral dosage forms.
The injection of micronized progesterone is well tolerated when used for 12 weeks and is not associated with a decreased incidence of endometrial transformation or other progestogen-associated side effects.
A three-week regimen of 3.75 mg/d Provera in postmenopausal women demonstrated a higher mean total serum estradiol level and a corresponding significant reduction in serum DHEAS than a placebo. Results from a recent paper provide further impetus for the addition of a P (micronized) formulation to future comparative effectiveness studies for the treatment of hot flushes following menopause.
This prospective study showed that the use of MPA at 1.5 mg/d as an intrauterine method had a positive impact on QoL, with a measurable improvement in sexual function. These data demonstrate that MPA may be a safe and effective therapeutic option in the treatment of hyperandrogenism for women, particularly for women without symptoms of menstrual irregularity.