This trial is evaluating whether Methotrexate will improve 1 primary outcome in patients with Brain Cancer. Measurement will happen over the course of 4 months.
This trial requires 10 total participants across 2 different treatment groups
This trial involves 2 different treatments. Methotrexate is the primary treatment being studied. Participants will all receive the same treatment. There is no placebo group. The treatments being tested are in Phase < 1 and are in the first stage of evaluation with people.
The standard treatment procedures for brain tumors do not seem to provide a complete cure for the brain tumor. Although metastatic brain tumors can be responsive to chemotherapy, complete surgical resection is necessary to obtain long-term disease-free survival in all types of brain cancer. There is no evidence that any of the forms of brain tumor therapy can cure the disease (including surgical resection).
There is no single cause at the molecular level of brain cancer. The most widely accepted view is that brain cancer develops from an accumulation of genetic mistakes resulting in uncontrolled cell growth in the brain or brain tissues. A variety of factors may be involved in the development of these genetic defects, including genetics, viral infections, exposure to chemical and physical agents, dietary factors, or chemical and occupational exposures. Some specific types of brain cancer may have an identifiable risk factor. The most well-known factors so far identified by research are tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, but most other risk factors, such as diabetes and obesity, are still being studied and need more attention. In addition to these factors, there are some environmental agents that predispose individuals to developing brain tumors.
Although not all patients with [brain tumor](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/brain-tumor)s will develop secondary brain metastases, these patients are at substantial risk of this catastrophic sequelae. With an average diagnosis in situ interval of 12.3 months for glioblastoma multiforme patients, this high risk has significant ramifications for clinical management.
Itchiness, feeling irritable and trouble sleeping are common symptoms of a brain tumor. Seizures are the most common symptom in children under 10. If a child complains of vomiting or a loss of consciousness, a brain tumor should be suspected. Seizures may be an indicator of brain cancer, particularly if associated with focal neurological problems. Seizures are likely to be epilepsy, which may be an indicator of brain cancer. Seizures also may be brought on by certain drugs, such as amphetamines, cocaine and barbiturates.
The average number of treatment sessions per patient ranged from 1.2 to 8.8 for the four treatments. A substantial number of patients underwent no treatment, but the average time in treatment was 0.76 months for non-Surgical patients and 0.56 months for Surgicals.
Brain tumour can be summarized in two main categories: glioma and neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma is the most common form and typically is found at lower stage. In most cases, it is benign but it can behave as a low-grade or high-grade tumour. Gliomas are the most common type of intracranial cancer and can arise from either the non-enhantown, non-central nervous system tumours. Many types of gliomas have been identified. Prognosis depends on factors such as stage, type and location. Brain cancer can arise from any part of the CNS.
Low doses do not kill brain tumor cells. Tumor cells survive because the cells are 'protected' from the drugs and tumor cells do not die because they are out-competed by normal cells. Methotrexate may not do this and causes a dose-limiting side-effect that may kill off healthy cells that would ordinarily be killed off by the drug. So the 'therapy is more effective than the disease' for as little as 50 minutes a day.
Methotrexate is a medication that can be used as an alternative in some cases. There must be careful choice of the dosage that is given.\n
A more thorough search would enable to identify four additional randomised trials of MTX for treatment of brain tumours published in the 1980s and 1990s with the same end-points as the present case paper. There may be several other methotrexate brain tumour studies published in the last two decades. None of these are randomised trials and none are published in the leading medical journals.
Results from a recent paper provide further evidence regarding the safety of methotrexate. A dosage regimen of at least 1 g/m has been found to be well tolerated.
There is still debate about whether mobile phone exposure plays a significant role in oncogenesis. It is also difficult to rule out other major biological effects of short-term mobile phone use in the human body. We also lack adequate knowledge about the primary molecular mechanisms of tumour promotion by wireless exposure. Future research is necessary to identify the main causes of brain tumours, and also to establish mechanisms of action leading from cellular alterations and genetic changes to oncogenesis.
Results from a recent paper suggest that [brain cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/brain-cancer) families are significantly more likely to have a family member who suffers from this disease. Although the effect size of these associations was relatively modest, it is the first study of its kind to link cancer susceptibility to brain cancer risk in an affected family member.