Head neoplasms are tumors that form in the scalp and neck and include almost any type of cancer. Many head and neck cancers grow back, and can recur or metastasize. However, metastases to the brain from head and neck cancer are very rare. Treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
The most common types of brain tumors are gliomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, medulloblastoma, and ependymoma and are mostly sporadic. Oncogenes play a crucial role during the process of tumorigenesis. The most studied are the "Notch-1", which plays a role in tumorigenesis and the "c-myc" oncogene, whose loss of function is associated with benign neoplasms, the "p16" tumor suppressor gene, an important candidate for the genesis of both, medulloblastomas and ependymomas.
About 1,300,000 [head and neck cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/head-and-neck-cancer)s are diagnosed annually in the United States, making it the most common cancer in American men and women. The most-common form are laryngeal cancer and pharyngeal cancer, which together account for 90% of all head and neck cancer cases. The incidence of head and neck cancer has been on the increase steadily since the 1950s; however, the annual age-adjusted and age-standardized incidence of head and neck cancer decreased slightly between the 1971-80 period and the 1990-99 period. The decline was greatest in the more educated and higher income-level segments of the population, particularly in the whites.
Most head tumors have nonspecific symptoms; often these symptoms mimic psychiatric or neurological disorders. It is particularly critical for neurologists to recognize headache as a symptom of neoplastic brain disease or neurosurgical pathology.
Although patients with cancer of the head may experience many problems, in particular, the loss of their sense of smell, the majority of patients with brain and spinal tumors can live happily with their disease, without the morbidity of having the disease but can continue to function normally. The same can be said of patients with craniac tumors. If cancer is discovered, however, treatment options are limited. The best method of management is to wait and see if a tumor develops or not, and to continue to take anticancer drugs as appropriate. This will be a major advance in our future management of this group of patients.
There are few common treatments for head neoplasms. However, radiation therapy and surgical removal of the tumor or partial removal of it are some of the commonly used treatments for the prevention or relief of headaches.\n
A personalized physical activity intervention with fitness graded motion exergames is a feasible approach to increase physical activity in clinical populations. More work on individualized exercise prescription is warranted, especially to decrease the risk for developing obesity and preventing cancer.
Results from a recent clinical trial indicate that this high frequency of neoplasms is due to a probable genetic predisposition, inherited from a common ancestors, which is not limited to head neoplasms.
The American Head and Neck Cancer Foundation has developed and is implementing an [Internet web site that provides] [information, tools, and resources for assessing patients' interests in clinical trials of head and neck cancer]. The website includes questions pertaining to current head and neck treatment and encourages individuals to take a [health care provider]]s opinion about whether they are right for clinical trials related to head and neck cancer or if they should consider joining clinical trials.
The main primary causes of head neoplasms in the Tunisian population were: acral melanosis, frontal meningioma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET); and, other sources accounted for minor rates such as meningiomas, choroid plexus papilloma, meningiomas, choroid plexus carcinoma, and meningeal sarcomas. It is important to emphasize the importance of detecting and treating head cancers as early as possible at an earlier stage.
Recent findings, the calculated lifetime probability of developing head neoplasms after initial treatment of a first brain tumor was 5.7 per 1000. The lifetime chance of developing brain metastases after resection of an intracranial brain metastasis was estimated to be 7.2 per 1000. The lifetime probability of developing cranial meningioma with extracerebral primary was estimated at 11.8 per 1000. When the probability of developing secondary primary head neoplasms is considered with the initial occurrence of brain metastasis, the net lifetime probability for secondary benign brain neoplasms may be as high as 19.6 per 1000.
The intervention was feasible and was well accepted by participants. The findings and suggestions from this study will help clinicians and researchers to develop more valid and reliable instruments to measure exercise behaviours. The design of the study is a unique and attractive addition to the emerging exergames sector.